This page gives characteristics of each plant family included in this website and provides links to many species within each family.

To see all the species on this website that are included in any particular family, go to the opening page of this website and click the bold blue lettering,
"Scientific family name" and then click "SUBMIT".

Family names on this website are in accord with the APG IV system.
Be sure to read about family changes

Click for a 2022 BLM publication on the characteristics of plant families.

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Click any species name below to see photographs, descriptive information, and a range map.

ssp.=subspecies       var.=variety      APG=Angiosperm Phylogeny Group



                                                         APG places this family in Asparagaceae (Asparagus Family). See below.


APG places this family in Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis Family). See below.

Weber's Alsinaceae is included in Caryophyllaceae by other botanists. See below.



Herbs, rarely subshrubs, annual or perennial. Stems without nodal spines. Leaves alternate or opposite, usually petiolate; blade margins entire. Inflorescence cymules arranged in spikes, panicles, thyrses, heads, glomerules, clusters, or racemes; each flower subtended by 1 bract and 2 bracteoles. Flowers bisexual or unisexual (plants then monoecious or dioecious), generally small or minute; tepals mostly (1-)4-5 or absent, distinct or connate into cups or tubes; stamens 2-5, anthers 2-locular with 1 line of dehiscence or 4-locular with 2 lines of dehiscence; ovary superior; ovules 1 or, rarely, 2 - many; style 1 or absent; stigmas 1-3(-5). Fruits utricles, dry, dehiscent or not. Seeds black, reddish brown, or brown.

Chenopodiaceae is now included in Amaranthaceae.

Four-Winged Saltbush
Nuttall's Poverty Weed  
Lamb's Quarters

Grayia brandegeei


Grayia spinosa

Spiny Hopsage  
Green Molly  
Mancos Shadscale


Amaryllis Family

Mostly perennials from bulbs. Leaves two-ranked. The leaves are simple rather fleshy and two-ranked with parallel veins. Leaf shape may be linear, strap like, oblong, elliptic, lanceolate or filiform. The leaves which are either grouped at the base or arranged alternatively on the stem, may be sessile or petiolate. The flowers, which are bisexual, are radially symmetrical, pedicellate or sessile, and are typically arranged in umbels at the apex of leafless flowering stems, or scapes and associated with a thread like bract. The perianth consists of six undifferentiated tepals arranged in two whorls of three. The inflorescence is scapose, umbellate, cymose. Inflorescence bracts 2 or more. There are six stamens arranged in two whorls of three. Style long, stigma dry. The fruit is dry and capsule-shaped, or fleshy and berrylike. Onions produce allyl sulfide compounds which give them their characteristic smell. (Details mostly quoted from Wikipedia.)
  Taper-tip Onion  
Nodding Onion  
Geyer's Onion  
Geyer's Onion  
Large-petaled Onion  
Nevada Onion  
Textile Onion  


Sumac Family

Primarily shrubs and trees, usually compound leaves. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, small in terminal clusters. Sepals 3-5, petals 3-5 or lacking. Stamens 5 or 10, pistil 1. Generally fleshy fruits (drupes) with one chamber and one seed. Many, as in the case of Toxicodendron rydbergii, produce Urushiol, an irritant. This family includes several species (Cashew, Pistachio, Mango) of economic importance.  The Sumac Family is also called the Cashew Family.
  Aromatic Sumac  
Smooth Sumac  
Poison Ivy  

(aka Umbelliferae)

Parsley Family

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. Leaves usually divided several times. Flowers mostly regular and perfect. Sepals 5 or lacking; petals 5, small. Stamens 5, pistil 1. Fruits large or small, round or long and pendant, horizontal, or vertical. Members of this large and very frequently encountered family often have flat-topped, pancake shaped flower clusters (umbels) sometimes quite small, sometimes eight inches in diameter. Distinctive Parsley smell, especially when foliage or seeds are crushed. Some Parsley Family species in our area are very visible: Ligusticum porteri; some are easily overlooked: Oreoxis alpina; some are deadly: Cicuta maculata. "Umbelliferae" is an accepted alternate scientific name for this family and it is used by Stanley Welsh in his A Utah Flora.

The Parsley Family is also called the Carrot, Umbel, or Celery Family.

Gray's Angelica


Pinnate Angelica
Water Hemlock
Hemlock Parsley
Fendler's Biscuitroot
Mountain Parsley  
Newberry's Biscuitroot
Purple Biscuitroot
Turpentine Biscuitroot
Cow Parsnip
Giant Lomatium
Gray's Biscuitroot  
Canyonlands Biscuitroot
Least Lomatium  
Parry's Biscuitroot
Nine-leaf Lomatium
Alpine Parsley  
Baker's Alpine Parsley
Turkeypea, Indian Potato  
Mountain Sweet Cicely  
Dwarf Sweet Cicely  
Western Sweet Cicely  
Eastwood's Woodroot  
Spring Biscuitroot
  Wide-winged Biscuitroot


Dogbane Family

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1–2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal ± 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, ± elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen ± free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or ± so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1–2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends. (From Jepson eFlora.)
  Amsonia, Bluestar  
Dogbane, Indian Hemp
Antelope-horn Milkweed
Pallid Milkweed
Asclepias cutleri Cutler's Milkweed  
Big Seed Milkweed
Showy Milkweed
Whorled Milkweed
Butterfly Weed
                                        Asclepias is now in Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family).


Asparagus Family

The APG Missouri Botanical Garden website has this to say about Asparagaceae: "This is a highly unsatisfactory family. Nothing characterises it, and while some of the subfamilies have several distinctive apomorphies and are also easy to recognise, others are difficult to recognise. The flowers of the whole group are for the most part a rather undistinguished "lily"-type, and quite often are rather small. Asparagoideae, and especially Nolinoideae and Agavoideae, are very heterogeneous, several families having been segregated from them in the past".
Sand Lily
Sand Lily

Maianthemum amplexicaule

Solomon's Plume  
Maianthemum stellatum  Star Lily  
Triteleia grandiflora Wild Hyacinth  

Yucca angustissima
var. angustissima

Narrow Leaf Yucca  
Bailey's Narrow Leaf Yucca  
Broad Leaf Yucca  
Harriman's Narrow Leaf Yucca  



These ferns grow in rocks or on trees, usually with erect stems. Leaves are monomorphic, from just 1 centimeter to over 3 meters long, with simple to pinnate blades, frequently with minute glandular hairs. Sori are borne on veins. Many species in this family hybridize. The family has about 700 species (many grown as houseplants) world-wide.
  Grass Fern  
Maidenhair Spleenwort
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(aka Compositae)

Sunflower Family

Asteraceae is the largest plant family in North America with over 400 genera and 2,400 species. Asteraceae is also the largest family in the world with about 1,900 genera. Various sources place the number of species from 23,000 to 35,000, with recent publications showing a number near the latter.

The origin of Asteraceae is about 83 million years ago in the late Cretaceous and the family underwent a series of explosive radiations and diversification rates during the Eocene.

Similar members of families are grouped and those in Asteraceae are grouped into 12 subfamilies and about 43 tribes. In the United States there are 25 tribes, the largest of which are the Astereae Tribe (Aster Tribe) with such related genera as Solidago, Grindelia, Chrysothamnus, Townsendia, and Erigeron; the Heliantheae Tribe (Sunflower Tribe) with such related genera as Encelia, Helianthus, Helianthella, Rudbeckia, Wyethia, and Heliomeris; and the Senecioneae Tribe (Groundsel Tribe) with such related genera as Tetradymia, Packera, Senecio, and Ligularia. The Four Corners region has 10 tribes: Anthemideae, Astereae, Cardueae, Eupatorieae, Helinatheae, Inuleae, Lactuceae, Mutisieae, Senecioneae, and Vernonieae. Volume 5 of Intermountain Flora has a key to the tribes on pages 14-15.

Asteraceae is made up of shrubs and herbs with inconspicuous to showy flower heads that appear to be one flower but are actually a composite of a number of flowers.

Flower heads are made up of four different types of tiny flowers (often called "florets") with cylindrical corollas:
1) Flower heads having only ligulate florets (often called "ray florets") with every corolla having one prominent, narrow, arching petal appendage (called "ligule", often called a "ray") which is actually a fusion of five petals (note the five lobes at the tip). Example: Taraxacum species (Dandelions).
2) Flower heads having only disk florets with almost all corollas having 5 small lobes but having no elongated petal. Example: Cirsium species (Thistles).
3) Flower heads with disk florets (packed together in the center of the flower head) surrounded by ray florets (very similar to ligulate florets (#1 above) but each narrow, arching petal-like structure most often has three lobes, not five). Example: Hymenoxys hoopesii (Sneezeweed).
4) Flower heads are similar to those in 3), but in addition to the three-lobed ray, there is a very short two-lobed ray on the opposite side of the corolla. Few Asteraceae species (none on this website and only a few in the Four Corners region) have this configuration.

Ligulate and ray florets may number from a few to dozens. Disk florets are often in the many dozens.

Disk florets may be bisexual and fertile or may have only functional stamens. Rarely they are sterile.

Ray florets are usually pistillate, i.e., they lack stamens. They are sometimes sterile.

Ligulate florets have functional stamens and a fertile pistil.

Fruit is an achene (better named, "Cypselae"), a one-chambered dry, hard fruit varying considerably in size. For more details see Disk Flower.

The term, "Compositae" (used in A Utah Flora) is an accepted, but now uncommonly used, alternate name for this family.

The family has a number of common names: Sunflower, Aster, Daisy, or Composite Family.

There are approximately 200 Asteraceae on this website, i.e., about 20% of all species are Asteraceae. Worldwide Asteraceae comprise about 10% of all plants.

Click for a more detailed analysis of Asteraceae.



Fragrant Snakeweed  
Mountain Dandelion  
Mountain Dandelion  
Pearly Everlasting
Flat-top Pussytoes  
Cushion Pussytoes
White-margined Pussytoes
Rocky Mountain Pussytoes  
Red Pussytoes
Heartleaf Arnica
Broadleaf Arnica
Soft Arnica
Parry's Arnica
Rydberg's Arnica  
Bigelow's Sagebrush
Northern Sagewort  
Carruth's Sagewort  
Wild Tarragon  
Sand Sagebrush
Ragweed Sagebrush
Fringed Sagewort
Silvery Sagewort  
Black Sagebrush  
Alpine Sagewort  
Big Sagebrush  
Arrowleaf Balsamroot
Large-flowered Bricklebush
Small-leaf Bricklebush
Musk Thistle  

Chaenactis douglasii var. alpina

Alpine Chaenactis  
Douglas' Chaenactis
Esteve's Chaenactis
Sand Aster
Chamaechaenactis scaposa Fullstem  
Low Rabbitbrush, Chamisa
Arizona Thistle  
Canada Thistle  
New Mexican Thistle
Parry's Thistle
Meadow Thistle
Alpine Thistle  
Tracy's Thistle  
Gray Hawksbeard  
Western Hawksbeard  
Saw-toothed Hawksbeard  
Bigelow's Tansy Aster  
Gray Tansy Aster  
Sticky Brittlebush  
Rubber Rabbitbrush  
Parry's Rabbitbrush  
Abajo Daisy

With ~250 species, Erigeron and Eriogonum are the two largest endemic genera in North America. There are 28 species of Erigeron on this website, making the Erigeron genus second to the 31 Astragalus species. Penstemon has 22 species and Eriogonum 16.

Rayless Fleabane
Silvery Daisy
Erigeron bellidiastrum Pretty Daisy  
Gray Daisy (Fleabane)
Composite Daisy (Fleabane)
Hairy Daisy (Fleabane)
Coulter's Daisy
Spreading Fleabane
Eaton's Daisy  
Tall Daisy (Fleabane)
Splendid Daisy (Fleabane)
Whiplash Daisy
Beautiful Daisy
Glacier Daisy (Fleabane)  
Large-flowered Daisy (Fleabane)  
Rockslide Daisy  
Lance-leaf Daisy  
Blackheaded Daisy  
Cut-leaved Daisy (Fleabane)  
Beautiful Daisy
Showy Daisy
Showy Daisy
Tracy's Daisy (Fleabane)  
Utah Daisy
Engelmann's Aster
Euphrosyne acerosa Copperweed  
Cut-leaf Blanketflower
Arizona Gumweed
Hairy Gumweed  
Curly Gumweed
Lone Mesa Snakeweed
This is a new species that
Betty and I discovered and Peggy Lyon and I described.
Small Head Snakeweed
Broom Snakeweed  
Small Head Sunflower
Parry's Sunflower
Five-nerved Sunflower
Common Sunflower
Waxy Aster  
Dwarf Golden Aster
Hairy Golden Aster
Zion Golden Aster
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  Fendler's Hawkweed  
Woolly Hawkweed  
Threadleaf Sunflower
Wild Cosmos
Old Man of the Mountains  
Orange Sneezeweed  
Many-flowered Jimmyweed
Rusbyi's Jimmyweed
Ox-eye Daisy
Large-flowered Rushpink
Large-flowered Rushpink
Rush-like Rushpink
Desert Dandelion  
Parry's Goldenweed  
Oxytenia acerosa Copperweed  

Packera crocata

Saffron Packera  
Two Leaf Groundsel  
Mancos Shale Packera This is a new species that
Betty and I discovered.
Many-lobed Packera  
New Mexico Groundsel  
Streambank Packera  
Rocky Mountain Groundsel  
Werner's Groundsel
Rock Goldenrod  
Picradeniopsis multiflora Threadleaf  
Spiny Sagebrush  
Basin Daisy  
Paper Flower  
Rhaponticum repens Russian Knapweed  
Golden Glow  
Desert Mule's Ears  
Viper Grass  
Showy Ragwort  
Holm's Ragwort  
Black-tipped Ragwort  
Fremont's Ragwort  
Nodding Ragwort  
Thick-leaf Ragwort  
Lonely Ragwort  
Thread-leaf Ragwort  
Fremont's Ragwort  
Lamb's Tongue Ragwort  
Serrated Ragwort  
Broom Ragwort  
Triangular Ragwort  
Wooton's Ragwort  
Rocky Mountain Goldenrod  
Dwarf Goldenrod  
Sticky Goldenrod  
Velvet Goldenrod  
Ring Grass  
Stephanomeria exigua var. exigua Whiteplume Wirelettuce  
Few-flowered Wirelettuce  
Slender-leaf Wirelettuce  
Heather Aster  
Sickle Aster  
Symphyotrichum foliaceum variety canbyi Leafy Aster  
Symphyotrichum spathulatum Spatula Aster  
Taraxacum eriophorum Alpine Dandelion  
Taraxacum ovinum Alpine Dandelion  
Gray Horsebrush  
Cat-claw Horsebrush  
Stemless Woolly Base  
Perky Sue
Torrey's Four-nerved Daisy  
Pygmy Serpentweed  
Annual Townsendia  
Oyster Bed Townsendia  
Easter Daisy  
Delicate Townsendia  
Rothrock's Townsendia  
Common Salsify  
Meadow Salsify  

Wyethia arizonica

Arizona Mule's Ears  
Mule's Ears  
Colorado Tansy Aster  
Saw-toothed Goldenweed  
Woolly Goldenweed  
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Barberry Family

Shrubs with yellow wood and inner bark. Leaves alternate, simple or compound. Flowers perfect, regular, in clusters. Sepals and petals similar appearing, commonly each in two sets of three. Stamens 6, pistil 1. Fruits dry or fleshy berry.
Fendler's Barberry
Oregon Grape  


Birch Family

Shrubs and trees with alternate and simple serrated leaves. Male inflorescence is spreading or pendulous catkin while female inflorescence (on same tree) is in clusters, spikes, or typically, catkins. 2 to many stamens, styles 2. Fruit is a 1-seeded nut. Catkins open at maturity and tiny winged-seeds float on breeze. Dried catkin persists. Alnus incana is very common along streams.
Water Birch  
Western Hophornbeam  


Forget-Me-Not Family

Herbaceous or shrubby. Leaves entire and often hairy. Flowers perfect, regular, often small, single or in clusters, frequently coiled and uncurling as flowers mature. Floral parts commonly in 5s, stamens 5, style 1. Fruits commonly breaking into 4 single-seeded lobes. Identification based on structure of fruit. Family has several very attractive and abundant species. Various Mertensia species are very common in the Rockies.

The Forget-Me-Not Family is also called the Borage Family.


Cryptantha crassisepala
var. elachantha

Thick-sepal Cat's Eye
Weber moved many Cryptantha into Oreocarya and this split is now widely accepted.

Cryptantha minima

Little Cat's Eye

Cryptantha pterocarya

Winged-nut Cat's Eye
Hound's Tongue
Hackelia floribunda
Hackel's Stickseed
Redowski's Stickseed  
Fringed Gromwell
Field Puccoon
Fringed Bluebells  
Franciscan Bluebells  
Mertensia fusiformis Spindle-rooted Bluebells  
Lance-leaf Bluebells  
Yellow Cryptantha  
Little Yellow Cat's Eye  
Gray Cat's Eye  
Humble Cat's Eye  
Marvelous Cat's Eye  
Reveal's Cat's Eye  
Oreocarya suffruticosa variety pustulosa Shrubby Cat's Eye  
Slender Cat's Eye  

(aka Cruciferae)

Mustard Family

Very large family of annual to perennial herbs or small shrubs, often with pungent, watery juice. Leaves alternate, simple to compound. Flowers perfect, regular (or nearly so), 4 petaled in the form of a cross, 4 sepals, and 6 stamens (outer 2 shorter than other 4). Ovary usually 2 chambered, sometimes 1, with a thin partition. Long and narrow or relatively round fruit typically splits open at maturity. Family includes kale, cabbage, broccoli, and turnips.

"Cruciferae" is an accepted, but infrequently used, alternate name for this family.  Stanley Welsh (author of A Utah Flora) calls this family "Cruciferae" not "Brassicaceae".

  Wild Alyssum  
Lemmon's Rockcress  
Drummond's Rockcress  
Shepherd's Purse  
Heartleaf Bittercress  
Purple Mustard
Mountain Tansy Mustard
Blunt Tansy Mustard
Spectacle Pod
Golden Draba
Brewer's Draba
Thick-leaf Draba
Snowbed Draba
Fladnitz Draba
Grass-like Draba
Showy Draba
Twisted Draba
Western Wallflower
Lens Pod Pepperwort  
Hairy Pod Pepperwort
Western Peppergrass
Water Cress  
Wild Candytuft  
Double Bladderpod  
Fendler's Bladderpod  
Cushion Bladderpod  
Straight Bladderpod  
Sac-like Bladderpod  
Alpine Yellowcress  
Jim Hill Mustard  
Flaxleaf Mustard  
American Smelowsky  
Prince's Plume  
Little Twistflower  
Heartleaf Twistflower  
African Mustard  
Durango Tumble Mustard  
Entire-leaf Thelypody  
Loose-flowered Thelypody  
Wedge-leaf Stonecress
Whitlow Grass
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Cactus Family

Perennial succulent or herbaceous. Distinctive fleshy flattened, cylindric, or globose stems; leaves modified to be needle-like spines; areoles give rise to tiny sharp hairs, spines, branches, or flowers. Flowers perfect, regular, often bright and large with many overlapping petals and sepals. Numerous attractive stamens; 1 often massive style. Fruit (often edible and choice) is a dry or fleshy many-seeded berry. Identification of species often based on vegetative rather than floral features and sometimes difficult because plants hybridize. Several species of several genera are quite common at lower elevations.
Fendler's Hedgehog Cactus
Claret Cup Cactus,
Hedgehog Cactus
Missouri Pincushion  
Pincushion Cactus  
Potato Cactus  
Prickly Pear Cactus  
Prickly Pear Cactus
Simpson's Pincushion Cactus  
Clover's Fishhook Cactus  
Gray Fishhook Cactus  
Mesa Verde Fishhook Cactus  
Fishhook Cactus  

Included in Liliaceae.


Bellflower Family

Herbs, usually with milky juice. Leaves alternate and simple. Bell-shaped regular or irregular, usually perfect flowers, 5-lobed with 5 sepals, 5 stamens, 1 style. Fruit is a capsule. Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia) is very common and very well known.
  Parry's Harebell  


Hemp Family

Tree, shrub, or erect or twining perennial herb; wind pollinated; epidermis with stiff hairs; leaves with petioles, simple, unlobed or palmately lobed or compound; inflorescence parts 4-6, free or fused, superior ovary, 2 slender, plumose stigmas; fruit is a drupe or achene.
Cleome and Cleomella are now in Cleomaceae, but Capparaceae still is an accepted family.


Honeysuckle Family

Herb, shrub, woody vine, or small tree with opposite leaves that are simple or compound. Flowers regular or irregular, perfect, arranged in clusters, with 5 petals fused into a trumpet-like shape, 4 or 5 lobed. 4 or 5 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit a berry, drupe, or capsule. Several genera are very common and well-known. Snowberry (Symphoricarpos spp.) covers extensive acreage under Aspens; Honeysuckle is known across the country.
  Linnaeus' Twinflower  
Valeriana occidentalis    
 Edible Valerian  


Pink Family

Large family of annual or perennial herbs with opposite, entire, simple leaves arising from swollen node. Flowers usually perfect, regular, with 4-5 or no petals, 4 or 5 sepals; 4-10 stamens -- often twice the number of sepals, 1 pistil. 1, 3, or 5-chambered capsule fruit. Many very common plants ranging from Chickweeds (Cerastium and others) to Moss campion (Silene acaulis).

Weber places some Caryophyllaceae in Alsinaceae, a family not accepted by other botanists.

  Woolly Chickweed Weber places Arenaria in Alsinaceae.
Mouse-eared Chickweed  
Alpine Sandwort
Formerly Minuartia.
Ball Head Sandwort
Weber places Eremogone in Alsinaceae.
Fendler's Sandwort
Weber places Eremogone in Alsinaceae.
King's Sandwort
Large-leaf Sandwort  
Tuber Starwort Weber places Pseudostellaria
  in Alsinaceae.
Moss Campion  
Large-flower Sandwort Formerly Minuartia.
Red Sandwort Formerly Minuartia.
Sleepy Catchfly  
Drummond's Catchfly  
Menzies' Catchfly  
Sand Spurrey Weber places Spergularia in Alsinaceae.
Colorado Starwort Weber places Stellaria in Alsinaceae.
Long-leaf Starwort  
Long-stalked Starwort  
Umbrella Starwort  


Staff-tree Family

Herbs and shrubs with alternate or opposite leaves, simple. Flowers perfect, regular, some inconspicuous, 4 or 5 sepals and petals, 4 or 5 or 8-10 stamens and usually 1 pistil. Fruit a capsule. Mountain Lover (Paxistima myrsinites) is a common, but usually unnoticed, ground-cover or small shrub.
  Fringed Grass of Parnassus  
  Small Grass of Parnassus  
  Mountain Lover  
Chenopodiaceae has been dissolved and most genera are now in Amaranthaceae.


Cleome Family

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, often ill-smelling. Leaf: generally 1-palmate, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules generally minute, often bristle-like or hairy; leaflets 0 or 3–7. Inflorescence: raceme, head, or flowers 1, expanded in fruit; bracts generally 3-parted below, simple above, or 0. Flower:generally bisexual, radial to ± bilateral; sepals generally 4, free or fused, generally persistent; petals generally 4, free, ± clawed; stamens generally 6, free, exserted, anthers generally coiling at dehiscence; ovary superior, generally on stalk-like receptacle, chamber generally 1, placentas generally 2, parietal, style 1, persistent, stigma generally minute, ± head-like. Fruit: 2 nutlets or generally capsule, septicidal; valves generally 2, deciduous, leaving septum (frame-like placentas) behind; pedicel generally ± reflexed to spreading. (From Jepson eFlora.)
Palmer's Bee Plant
Yellow Beeplant  
Rocky Mountain
Bee Plant

See Hypericaceae.


Spiderwort Family

Herbaceous perennials. Leaves alternate, narrow, distinctly parallel-veined. Flowers perfect, showy, parts in 3s. Stamens 6 in 2 series, style 1. Seeds small. Exotic Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) is always a treat to find.
Weber's Convallariaceae is included in Liliaceae or Asparagaceae by other botanists.


Morning Glory Family

Annual or perennial herbs, vines, or shrubs. Leaves simple or compound, alternate, entire or lobed. Funnel-shaped flowers are solitary or in groups. 5 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit is a capsule with one to several seeds. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is known to anyone who has ever looked at the ground.


Dogwood Family

Shrubs and small trees as well as herbs with entire or serrate, simple, opposite or whorled leaves with obvious veins. Flowers regular, perfect or imperfect, usually white, with 4 or 5 showy, small, or non-existent sepals and 4 or 5 small or distinct petals. Fruit is a drupe with 1 or 2 seeds. Red-osier Dogwood (Cornus alba) is very common along streambanks.
  Red-Osier Dogwood  
Red-Osier Dogwood  


Stonecrop Family

Perennials and annuals, succulent. Alternate or opposite, simple, fleshy leaves. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, in clusters or solitary. 4 or 5 sepals separate or united, 4 or 5 separate petals. Stamens 4, 8, or 10; pistils 4 or 5. Fruit a follicle. Sedum lanceolatum is widespread and found from foothills to alpine.
Yellow Stonecrop
Yellow Stonecrop
Rose Crown, Queen's Crown
King's Crown  
Rose Crown, Queen's Crown  


Crossosoma Family

Shrub, small tree. Stem: generally glabrous; branchlets or twigs generally thorny. Leaf: generally deciduous, simple, generally small, generally alternate, entire; stipules minute or 0. Inflorescence: flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium short; sepals, petals generally 5(3–6), free; petals generally white, ephemeral; stamens 4–50, on or around disk; pistils 1–9, simple, styles short, stigmas head-like, ovules generally 2–many. Fruit: follicles, 1–9. Seed: brown to black. (From Jepson eFlora.)


Cypress Family

Ancient family. Shrubs or trees commonly resinous and aromatic. Leaves are evergreen, overlapping scale-like, or needle-like. Male cones are small; female cones with 1 to several seeds are much larger and dry or fleshy at maturity. Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) is widespread through the Rockies. Junipers are commonly and incorrectly called "Cedars". True Cedars, the genus Cedrus, are actually in the Pine Family. Cedar fence posts, cedar chests, and cedar firewood are all actually Juniper.

The family is sometimes also called Cedar Family but it is not related to Cedars.

Common Juniper

Juniperus deppeana

Alligator Juniper  
One-seed Juniper  
Utah Juniper  
Rocky Mountain Juniper  

Cypripediaceae is included in Orchidaceae.

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Cystopteridaceae is included in Dryopteridaceae
Bracken Fern Family

These ferns mostly grow on land in moist forests. Stems are short-to-long creeping and are usually hairy. Leaves are mostly monomorphic with a pinnate blade that can be glabrous or hairy. The sori are near or at the blade margin. This is primarily a tropical family with about 400 species world-wide.
  Bracken Bracken Fern  

Dryopteridaceae Wood Fern Family

This is a rock and ground growing fern with creeping or erect stems and pinnate leaves that can be monomorphic or dimorphic (monomorphic in our area). Sori are on the veins in our area but may in other areas be at the vein tips. This is a very large fern family with 60 genera and over 3,000 species world wide.
Cystopteris fragilis Brittle Fern  
Cystopteris reevesiana Reeves' Brittle Fern  
Male Fern
Holly Fern  


Oleaster Family

Shrub or trees, commonly thorny, with simple leaves coated with very showy scales or hairs (observable with a hand lens). Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, small but clustered in large numbers. Perianth 4-lobed. 4-8 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit is hard dry seed enclosed in often edible fleshy growth which provides significant food for birds, bears, raccoons. Several family members, such as, Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), are moisture loving.
Russian Olive
Silver Buffaloberry  
Canada Buffaloberry  
Round Leaf Buffaloberry  


Ephedra Family

Dioecious shrubs of a single genus; branches green to olive green, opposite or whorled; leaves scalelike, opposite or whorled; seeds angled to terete. Very common in high desert.
Cutler's Mormon Tea
Torrey's Mormon Tea
Green Mormon Tea


Horsetail Family

One of the most ancient land plants. Perennial, stems annual or perennial, typically hollow, jointed, ribbed. Leaves small and scale-like. Spores numerous. Horsetails (Equisetum arvense) are common from lower foothills to mid-montane.
Field Horsetails
Scouring Rush  
Equisetum laevigatum Smooth Scouring Rush  
Scouring Rush


Heath Family

Shrubby or herbaceous perennials, evergreen or deciduous, often leathery leaves. Flowers often waxy, fragrant, perfect, regular or irregular, in terminal clusters. 4 or 5 petals and sepals, 8- 10 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit a capsule or berry. Plants often in small patches. Single delight (Moneses uniflora) is indeed a delight to find. Several species are very common and very well known: Kinnikinick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and Blueberry (Vaccinium spp). The latter rarely produces fruit in our area. The Heath Family is found in mountain regions around the world.

Ericaceae includes all former species of Pyrolaceae.

Kinnikinick, Bear Berry
Single Delight  
One-sided Wintergreen  
Pink Wintergreen  
Green-flowered Wintergreen  
Small Wintergreen  
Variegated Wintergreen  

Vaccinium myrtillus

Blueberry Ubiquitous ground cover in Spruce forests.


Spurge Family

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or trees. Some members have stems containing an irritating or poisonous milky sap. Leaves simple or in 3s. Flowers imperfect, petals distinct or commonly lacking. Stamens 1 to many, pistil 1. Fruit usually a 2 or 3-valved capsule. Several species very common at low elevations. Shorthorn spurge (Euphorbia lurida) is found from low to montane elevations. The family has evolved very unusual floral characteristics.
  Shorthorn Spurge  
Fendler's Spurge
Carved Seed Spurge  
Thyme-leaf Spurge
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(aka Leguminosae)

Pea Family

Members of this very large, diverse family are typically perennial herbs with alternate, compound leaves and distinctive flowers commonly comprised of an upper, somewhat vertical, enlarged petal (banner), 2 side petals (wings), and 2 partially fused lower petals (keel) between the wings. Fruits are usually legumes with 2 alternate rows of seeds. Roots commonly with numerous tiny nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria. This is the family of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa); Astragalus (Astragalus alpinus) -- one of the largest genera of all plants; Lupines (Lupinus argenteus); and Clovers (Trifolium pratense). Some legumes are edible; some, such as the selenium absorbing Astragalus, are poisonous -- and known as "Locoweed".

"Leguminosae" is an accepted, but infrequently used, alternate name for this family.  Stanley Welsh (author of A Utah Flora) calls this family "Leguminosae" not "Fabaceae". The Pea Family is also known as the Bean or Legume Family.

Deer Vetch
Astragalus is the largest genus in the world with over 3,000 species. The Astragalus genus is the most numerous on this website with 31 species. 
Erigeron has 28, Penstemon 22, and Eriogonum 16.
Astragalus are commonly known as Vetch, Milkvetch, Locoweed, or Pea.
Astragalus are commonly known as Vetch, Milkvetch, Locoweed, or Pea.

Dalea candida var. oligophylla

Silvery Dalea
Wild Licorice
Northern Chainpod
Western Chainpod
Lanszwert's Sweetpea  
Utah Sweetpea
Silvery Lupine
Short-stemmed Lupine
Lupinus caespitosus Matted Lupine  
King's Lupine
Choke-cherry Lupine
Small Lupine
Black Medic  
Yellow Sweet Clover  
Sain Foin  
Alpine Reclining Locoweed  
Silky Reclining Locoweed  
Lambert's Locoweed  
Parry's Locoweed  
Indian Breadroot  
Robinia neomexicana New Mexico Locust  
Silvery Sophora  
Mountain Golden Banner  
Golden Banner  
Rocky Mountain Trifolium  
Brandegee's Trifolium  
Shaggy Leaf Trifolium  
Holly leaf Trifolium  
Long-stalked Trifolium  
Dwarf Trifolium  
Parry's Trifolium  
Red Clover  
White Clover  
American Vetch  


Beech Family
(Oak Family)

Deciduous trees or shrubs with alternate, lobed leaves. Flowers imperfect but on same plant. Male flowers in long, slender catkins; female flowers solitary or in threes at twig tips. Fruit is a nut, an acorn. Gambel's Oak (Quercus gambelii), found throughout the Southwest, is highly variable in leaf shape, height, etc., probably because of hybridization.

Quercus gambelii

Gambel's Oak  
Live Oak


Frankenia Family

                                                   APG places this family in Papaveraceae (Poppy Family).
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Gentian Family

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, stems smooth, leaves usually opposite or whorled, simple, entire. Flowers perfect, regular, solitary or in clusters, often tubular. Calyx 2-5 lobed, corolla 4 or 5 lobed. Stamens 4 or 5 alternating with corolla lobes. Pistil 1. Fruit a 2-valved capsule. This is a small family with many showy and well-known species in the U.S. and world-wide. Fringed Gentian (Gentianopsis thermalis) is a favorite of many flower lovers.
White-margined Frasera
Utah Frasera
Monument Plant
Arctic Gentian
Bottle Gentian  
Parry's Mountain Gentian  
Siberian Gentian  
Little Gentian
Little Gentian
Little Fringed Gentian
Fringed Gentian
Star Gentian  


Geranium Family

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves usually have a distinct smell, opposite or alternate, simple or often compound. Showy flowers perfect, mostly regular, with 5 sepals and petals. Stamens 5 or 10, pistil 1. Fruit is usually long and narrow (like a Crane's bill), dry with 1 seed per chamber curling upon opening. Showy flowers, large leaves, and distinctive seed pods are hallmarks of these species. Wild Geranium (Geranium richardsonii) is very common over a broad range of elevations; Filaree (Erodium cicutarium), at one time considered non-native, is even more widely distributed.
Wild Purple Geranium
Wild Geranium
Sticky Geranium


Gooseberry Family(Currant Family)

Shrubs with or without bristles, alternate and usually palmately lobed leaves. Flowers perfect, regular, 5-parted and arranged in clusters at ends of branches. Fruits are fleshy and berry-like and almost always tasty. Mountain currant (Ribes montigenum) profusely flowers and produces large crops of berries.

Also called Gooseberry Family and placed in Saxifrage Family by some botanists.

Golden Currant  
Wax Currant  
Colorado Currant  
Whiskey Currant  
Trailing Currant  
Mountain Currant  
Wolf's Currant  
Weber's Helleboraceae is included in Ranunculaceae by other botanists.
Mare's Tail is now in Plantaginaceae.


Hydrangea Family

Mostly shrubs with opposite leaves and showy, fragrant, white flowers with parts in fours. Fruits persistent and evident. Cliff Fendlerbush (Fendlera rupicola) turns the foothills snowy white in late May.
Cliff Fendler Bush
Mock Orange  


Waterleaf Family

Annual to perennial herbs rarely shrubs; usually bristly with glandular hairs, round stems; leaves are usually alternate, entire to pinnately lobed, basal rosette often present; flowers bisexual; 5 sepals, 5 petals (often blue to purple), often actinomorphic; fruit is a capsule.

Fendler's Waterleaf
Phacelia bakeri Baker's Phacelia  
Crenulated Phacelia  
Glandular Phacelia  
Varied-leaf Phacelia  
Whole Phacelia  
Ives' Phacelia  
Silky Phacelia  
Bristly Popcorn Flower  


St. Johnswort Family

Annual to shrub [tree]. Leaf: cauline, simple, opposite or whorled, often gland-dotted; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or flower 1, terminal or axillary. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals persistent, generally 5, often fused at base, overlapping; petals generally 5, free; stamens generally many, free or ± fused into 3–5 clusters; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 1–3[5], placentas generally axile, style branches 3. Fruit: capsule, generally septicidal. Seed: many, small. (From Jepson eFlora.)
  St. Johnswort  


Iris Family

Rhizomatous herbs. Leaves mainly basal, linear. Flowers showy, solitary or few. Perianth segments 6, stamens 3, style branches 3. Fruit a large capsule. Missouri iris (Iris missouriensis) fills snow-watered meadows with delicate blue.
Wild Iris
Blue-eyed Grass  


 Arrowgrass Family

Perennial herbs of marshes and wet meadows. Leaves linear. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, in a spike. Floral parts in 6s. Fruit a capsule. Arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima) can be abundant in marshy areas.

(aka Labiatae)

Mint Family

Often aromatic annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, usually with square stems. Leaves simple, opposite (rarely whorled). Flowers perfect, mostly irregular, in clusters. 5 fused petals and sepals . Stamens 4, pistil 1. Fruits are multi-capsuled. Plants often aromatic and showy. Beebalm (Monarda fistulosa) is often grown as a garden plant and numerous species (peppermint, basil, thyme, marjoram, oregano) flavor our cooking.

"Labiatae" is an accepted, but rarely used, alternate name for this family.  Stanley Welsh (author of A Utah Flora) calls this family "Labiatae".

  Giant Hyssop  
Wild Basil  
Marrubium vulgare Horehound  
Aromatic Little Monarda  
Gray Mint  


Bladderwort Family

Herbaceous, aquatic, often carnivorous perennials. Leaves typically submerged, finely divided with bladders that trap microscopic aquatic animals such as Paramecium. Flowers perfect, irregular, few to many in clusters. Calyx 2-lobed, corolla of 5 united petals. Stamens 2, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule. Bladderwort (Utricularia macrorhiza) adds a bright touch of yellow to pond shallows.
  Greater Bladderwort  
Lesser Bladderwort  


Lily Family

A family of mostly herbaceous plants of diverse structure and habitats. Leaves usually alternate, fleshy, often elongated with veins running parallel from base to tip.  Flowers are regular, perfect, showy with petals and sepals usually in threes, sometimes distinctly different from each other, often nearly identical (then called "tepals"). 6 stamens, 1 pistil. Superior ovary. Fruit is a 3-part capsule or berry.

Because of genetic research, a number of Liliaceae have been placed in other families.

  Flexible Sego Lily

Weber places Calochortus
in Calochortaceae.

Gunnison's Sego Lily  
Nuttall's Sego Lily  
Glacier Lily
Chocolate Lily
Wood Lily
Alp Lily
Fairybells Weber places Prosartes and
in Uvulariaceae, a family name not used by most other botanists.


Flax Family

Annual or perennial herbs. Represented in our area by a single genus (Linum). Leaves alternate, simple. Flowers perfect, regular, 5-parted petals and sepals attached directly to flower stalk. 5-10 fertile stamens and a pistil with 5-10 styles. Blue Flax (Linum lewisii), discovered by Meriwether Lewis, is a delicately beautiful plant found widely through the West. Blue Flax flowers open early and, depending on the sun or shade, fall by midday.
Blue Flax  
Yellow Flax  
Utah Yellow Flax  

                                  APG places this family in Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family).


Loasa Family

Annual, perennial, or shrubby plants with barbed, Velcro-like hairs. Leaves opposite or alternate, entire or lobed. Flower regular, perfect, solitary or in clusters. 4-5 sepals and petals, stamens 5 to many , style 1. Fruit a capsule with one to many seeds. Often showy and lovely flowers are night-blooming. Blazing Star (Mentzelia multiflora) can be several feet tall with numerous, showy flowers. Dead, straw-colored plants stand for months.

Also called Blazing Star or Stickleaf Family.


White-Stemmed Mentzelia  
Hard Seed Mentzelia  
Mentzelia rusbyi Rusby's Mentzelia  
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Mallow Family

Herbs or shrubs, usually hairy, annual biennial, or perennial with mucilaginous juice. Leaves alternate, simple, mostly palmately veined. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular. solitary or in clusters. 5 sepals and petals. Fruit a capsule. Some species at low elevations often carpet the ground. Checker mallows (Sidalcea spp.) at higher elevations are tall and showy wetland plants. Cotton, okra, and marsh mallows come now, or originally, from this family.
Wild Hollyhock
White Checkermallow  
Pink Checkermallow  
Scarlet Globe Mallow  
Large Leaf Globe Mallow  
Narrow Leaf Globe Mallow  
Triangular Leaf Globe Mallow  


False Hellebore Family

Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, ± spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal. (From Jepson eFlora.) 

Melanthiaceae is a small family made up of former Liliaceae.

Mountain Death Camas
Foothills Death Camas  
Corn Lily  


Buckbean Family

Plants aquatic or semi-aquatic with thick rhizomes. Flowers perfect, regular, in clusters. Sepals and petals 5. Stamens 5, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule with smooth, shining seeds. Marsh trefoil (Menyanthes trifoliata) produces floating masses of leaves and exotic, fringed flowers.
See Ericaceae.


Miner's Lettuce Family

Annual to perennial herb; generally fleshy. Stem: 1–many, generally glabrous. Leaf: simple, alternate or opposite. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal; cyme, raceme, panicle, umbel, or flower 1. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals generally 2(9), free; petals (1)2–19, free or ± fused; stamens 1–many, epipetalous or not, anthers pink, rose, or yellow; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules 1–many, placenta basal or free-central; styles (0)1–8, generally fused at base, branched. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile or 2–3-valved. Seed: 1–many, shiny or ± pebbly or sculptured, black or gray, generally with oil-filled appendage as food for ants. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Montiaceae is made up of former Portulacaceae.

Spring Beauty
Alpine Spring Beauty

Nevada Bitterroot, Lewesia

Pygmy Bitterroot, Lewesia  

Phemeranthus brevifolius
Talinum brevifolium

Canyonlands Rockpink  


Fiddleleaf Family

Annual, hairy. Stem: erect, branched, hairy, shorter stem hairs retrose. Leaf: deciduous, simple, alternate, sessile, venation pinnate. Flower: sessile, bisexual, radial; calyx lobes 5, fused at base; corolla deciduous, funnelform, lobes 5; stamens 5, included, filaments unequally attached within corolla tube; styles 2, included, terminal, branches 2. Fruit: capsule, 3-4 mm long.
Nama retrorsa Howell's Nama  


Four O'Clock Family

Annual or perennial herbs, often with stems swollen at the nodes. Leaf: simple, usually opposite. Flower: often tubular, perfect, regular, stamens 1 to many, pistil 1. Fruit 1-seeded, often winged nutlet. Very showy Four O'Clocks (Mirabilis multiflora) are a relatively common southwest species.
  Sand Verbena  
Trailing Windmills
Narrow-leaf Four O'Clocks  
Showy Four O'Clocks  
Trailing Four O'Clocks  


Olive Family
(Ash Family)

Perennial herb to tree [vine], hairs 0 or peltate or not; our two genera dioecious or polygamo-dioecious (a plant may have female and bisexual flowers and another plant may have male and bisexual flowers). Leaf: simple to odd-pinnately compound, alternate or generally opposite, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: various; flowers >= 1. Flower: generally bisexual, but mostly unisexual in Forestiera and Fraxinus, generally radial; calyx generally minute (0), tube cup-shaped, lobes 4–15; petals (0)4–6(8), generally fused; nectar disk often present; stamens (0)2(4–5), epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2–4 ovuled, placenta axile, style 1, stigma generally 2-lobed. Fruit: drupe, capsule, or winged achene. Seed: 1 per chamber. (From Jepson eFlora.)
Desert Olive
Single Leaf Ash


Evening Primrose Family

Herbs or rarely woody. Leaves alternate, opposite, often in basal clusters. Flowers perfect. Sepals and petals 4 or 2. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals. Fruit a capsule, nut, or berry. Not true Primroses (Primulaceae). Very showy white or yellow long-flowering plants from hot, dry foothills to moist montane meadows. Pollinated by night-flying moths. Evening primrose (Oenothera caespitosa) is very common and showy.

Alpine Fireweed
Chylismia scapoidea ssp. scapoidea Leafless Bee Blossom  
Chylismia walkeri ssp. walkeri Walker's Bee Blossom  
Alpine Willowherb  
Fringed Willowherb
Hornemann's Willowherb

Oenothera albicaulis

White-stemmed Evening Primrose  
Matted Evening Primrose  
Evening Primrose  
Hooker's Evening Primrose  
Yellow Evening Primrose  
Oenothera lavandulifolia Sundrops  
Bridges Evening Primrose  
Pale Evening Primrose  
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Moonwort Family

Spore-bearing plants, considered fern allies, with complex and little understood life cycle. Spend 10 years underground in spore stage in association with mycorrhizal fungi. Emerge as perennials, very small (up to 6 inches tall in some species), living above ground for perhaps 6 years. Leaf uniquely composed of fertile frond (sporophore) and infertile, photosynthesizing trophophore. All Botrychium are considered rare in Colorado -- perhaps because they are so difficult to find. Botrychium echo is the most common species of this family in the Colorado Rockies.

Also called Moonwort Family.

Echo Moonwort
Western Moonwort
Lance-leaf Moonwort
Mingan Moonwort
New Moon Moonwort
Pinnate Moonwort


Orchid Family

Next to Asteraceae, Orchidaceae is the largest family world-wide. Mostly tropical family of perennial herbs with tuberous, fibrous or scaly, coral-like rootstocks and entire leaves. Showy flowers are irregular, 3-parted, with similar lateral petals and the mostly dissimilar middle petal (lip) often with a backward-projecting spur. Fruits typically a 3-valved capsule.
  Calypso Orchid  
Long-bracted Orchid
Spotted Coralroot
Striped Coralroot
Lady's Slipper Orchid
Weber places Cypripedium in Cypripediaceae.
Giant Helleborine
Plantain Orchid
Plantain Orchid
Bog Orchid
Blunt-leaf Orchid
Heartleaf Twayblade
Lady's Tresses  


Broomrape Family

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Genetic research has shown that Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, and Pedicularis belong in Orobanchaceae, not Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon).

  Arizona Broomrape  
Bundled Broomrape
Single-flower Broomrape
  Desert Paintbrush Genetic research indicates that Paintbrush (Castilleja spp.) should be placed in Orobanchaceae. Paintbrush is often parasitic.
  Hayden's Paintbrush  
Whole-leaf Paintbrush  
Wyoming Paintbrush  
Lineated Paintbrush  
Red Paintbrush  
Western Yellow Paintbrush  
Rose Paintbrush  
Eastwood's Paintbrush  
Northern Yellow Paintbrush  
Genetic research indicates that Cordylanthus should be placed in Orobanchaceae.
Yellow Owl-clover Genetic research indicates that Orthocarpus should be placed in Orobanchaceae.
Purple Owl-clover  
Fern Leaf Lousewort Genetic research indicates that Pedicularis should be placed in Orobanchaceae. Pedicularis are often parasitic.
Spring Lousewort  
Elephant Heads  
Alpine Lousewort  
Towering Lousewort  
Parrot's Beak  
Alpine Lousewort  


Wood Sorrel Family

Herbs with sour juice (oxalic acid). Leaves in threes. Flowers perfect, regular, solitary or in clusters. Sepals and petals 5, stamens 10, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule. Sorrel (Oxalis dillenii) is quite uncommon in our area but quite common in other areas of the U.S.
  Yellow Wood Sorrel  
Violet Wood Sorrel  
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Poppy Family

Annual or perennial herbs, usually with milky juice. Leaves alternate, opposite, entire, lobed. Flowers regular, perfect, solitary or several in cluster. Stamens few to numerous, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule. Paper poppy (Argemone polyanthemos) has large, very showy white flowers and is extending its range.
Prickly Poppy
Golden Corydalis
Case's Corydalis


Grass of Parnassus Family

                    Parnassia species are now in Celastraceae.


Lopseed Family

Annual to shrub. Stem: ×-section generally round. Leaf: opposite, simple, entire or toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, or panicle, bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx radial or ± bilateral, tube long, generally ribbed, lobes 5; corolla generally bilateral, generally 2-lipped, upper [1]2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; stamens 4 in 2 pairs, epipetalous, included or exserted; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas parietal or axile, style 1, stigma lobes 2, flat, folding together when touched. Fruit: generally capsule, generally ellipsoid, loculicidal [indehiscent, 1-seeded]. (From Jepson eFlora.)
  Eastwood's Monkeyflower Genetic research indicates that Erythranthe should be placed in Phrymaceae.
Yellow Monkeyflower  
Suksdorf's Monkeyflower  
Tiling's Monkeyflower  


Pine Family

Ancient family of evergreen trees with scaly bark. Leaves of two kinds: thin and scale-like at the base of short branches and long, green needle-like borne singly or in clusters of 2-5 on spur branches. Male pollen-producing cones are narrow, elongated; female cones similarly shaped but much larger and woody, maturing in 1 or 2 seasons and not falling apart at maturity. All of our Pines are important forest trees for wildlife, human uses, and their beauty. Majestic Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is found throughout the Rockies.
  Subalpine Fir  
White Fir  
Engelmann Spruce  
Colorado Blue Spruce  
Lodgepole Pine  
Pinyon Pine  
Limber Pine  
Ponderosa Pine  
Douglas Fir  


Plantain Family

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Genetic research indicates that a number of former Scrophulariaceae genera (Besseya, Chionophila, Collinsia, Linaria, Penstemon, and Veronica) should be placed in Plantaginaceae.

Blue-Eyed Mary
Mare's Tail
Butter and Eggs
Common Butter and Eggs
Narrow-leaf Penstemon

With ~250 species each, Penstemon and Eriogonum are the two largest North American endemics and they are tied for third as the genera with the most numerous species in North America. Carex has 480 species and Astragalus 350. Erigeron has about 200 species.

The Penstemon genus has 22 species on this website. Eriogonum has 16. Astragalus
has 31 species and Erigeron 28.

Scarlet Bugler  
Short Penstemon  
Crandall's Penstemon Formerly identified in the Four Corners region as
P. caespitosus.
Penstemon cyanocaulis Blue-stemmed Penstemon  
Hairy Penstemon  
Eaton's Penstemon  
Hall's Penstemon  
Harbour's Penstemon  
Thick Penstemon  
Narrow-leaf Penstemon  
Bridges Penstemon  
Rocky Mountain Penstemon  
Utah Penstemon  
Whipple's Penstemon  
Woolly Plantain  
American Brookline Genetic research indicates that Veronica should be placed in Plantaginaceae.
Alpine Kitten Tails
Veronica plantaginea White River Kitten Tails  
Ritters' Kitten Tails
Thyme-leaf Speedwell  


Phlox Family

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, entire to pinnatifid, simple or compound. Flowers perfect, solitary or in clusters. Calyx 5-lobed, corolla usually 5 united petals, often in showy tubes. Stamens usually 5 adnate to the petals, included or exserted, pistil 1. Ovary superior. Fruit a capsule. The Phlox Family gives us a number of very common and showy plants from Alpine Phlox (Phlox condensata) to montane Jacob's Ladder (Polemonium pulcherrimum) to foothills and montane Scarlet Gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata).

  Beautiful Gilia  
Hayden's Gilia  
Sticky Gilia  
Coral Gilia  
Large-flowered Trumpet
Narrow-leaf Trumpet
Sparse Starflower
Eyed Gilia
Scarlet Gilia
Ball-head Skyrocket
Gunnison's Skyrocket  
Long-flowered Skyrocket
Pagosa Skyrocket
Spreading Skyrocket
Dwarf Skyrocket
Coral Ipomopsis
This is a new species that
Betty and I discovered.
Rosy Skyrocket
Slender-tubed Skyrocket
Slender-tubed Phlox
Desert Trumpets
Graceful Phlox  
Yellow Pincushion  
Alva Day's Gilia
Southern Phlox  
Gray Phlox  
Alpine Phlox  
Long-flower Phlox  
Phlox multiflora Many-flower Phlox  
Dense Sky Pilot  
Leafy Jacobs Ladder  
Beautiful Jacobs Ladder  
Sticky Sky Pilot  


Milkwort Family

Milkwort Milkwort  


Buckwheat Family

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or vines. Leaves simple, alternate, opposite or whorled. Flowers perfect or not, regular. Perianth in 2-6 parts. Species divided into two groups: Knotweeds (5-sepaled flowers in dense clusters) and Buckwheats (6-sepals in whorls of 3 in dense umbels). Fruit a three-sided, hard sunflower-like seed. This family gives us two important food plants: Buckwheat and Rhubarb. American bistort (Bistorta bistortoides) and Sulphur Flower (Eriogonum umbellatum) are very common and showy plants known to all who hike the Rockies.

The Eriogonum genus is, with Penstemon, the largest North American plant genus with about 254 endemic species. Eriogonum range from east central Alaska south to central Mexico and from near-shore islands off the California and Baja California coasts to the Great Plains of central Canada south to central Mexico, the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia and Virginia, and the coastal plains of the southeastern United States from the Carolinas to central Florida. (From James Reveal's key to Polygonaceae.)

The Buckwheat Family is also known as the Knotweed Family.

American Bistort
Alpine Bistort
Winged Buckwheat  
Curved Buckwheat

With 250 species, Eriogonum is tied with Penstemon as the genera with the most species endemic to North America.
On this website there are 16 species of Eriogonum. There are 31 species of Astragalus, 28 of Erigeron, and 22 of Penstemon.

Intermountain Flora has 118 pages of keys and descriptions for 121 species of Eriogonum. The Flora of North America
has 209 pages of keys and
descriptions for nearly 224
Eriogonum species. James Reveal, the Eriogonum expert, devotes over 1,200 pages to keys, descriptions, photographs, and locations of all ~250 species of Eriogonum plus hundreds of varieties.

Nodding Buckwheat
Corymb Buckwheat
Corymb Buckwheat
Eriogonum hookeri Hooker's Buckwheat  
Desert Trumpets
Slender-leaved Buckwheat
Lance-leaf Buckwheat
Slender Buckwheat
Cushion Buckwheat
Eriogonum palmerianum Palmer's Buckwheat  
Red-root Buckwheat
Sulphur Flower
Mountain Sorrel  
Water Smartweed  
Persicaria lapathifolia Dock-leaf Smartweed  
Persicaria maculosa Spotted Lady's Thumb  
Dense-flowered Dock  
Wild Rhubarb  
Flexible Buckwheat  
Salty Buckwheat  



  Western Polypody  


Purslane Family

Annual to perennial herb, generally fleshy. Stem: [1]several to many, spreading [to erect], generally glabrous. Leaf: simple, alternate or opposite, linear, obovate, spoon-shaped, [elliptic, ± round], flat or cylindric, hairs in axils, inconspicuous or not [0], upper 2–5 forming involucre. Inflorescence: flowers 1 or clustered at stem tips. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals 2, fused at base, lower part fused to ovary and generally persistent in fruit; petals [4]5[7], fused at base, forming ring, yellow [magenta, rose, orange, white]; stamens 4–20[> 20], epipetalous or not, anthers yellow; ovary 1/2-inferior, chamber 1, ovules several to many, placenta free-central; style branches [2]3–6[12]. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile. Seed: many, reniform, ± tubercled, black, gray, [brown, ± blue]. (From Jepson eFlora.) 

On the basis of genetic research, Claytonia, Lewisia, and Phemeranthus, formerly in Portulacaceae, have been moved to Montiaceae.

  Purslane or Portulaca  


Primrose Family

Annual or perennial herbs with simple leaves. Flowers perfect, regular, commonly with 5 fused sepals, 5 petals fused into a lobed tube, and 5 stamens. Fruit is a capsule, typically with five valves. Early blooming Parry's primrose (Primula parryi) is a favorite.
Fairy Candelabra
Shooting Star
Parry's Primrose  
Alcove Primrose  


Maidenhair Fern Family

Stems are compact and creeping. Once-to-six times pinnate leaves are monomorphic or dimorphic with persistent scales on the petioles and complex patterns on the veins. Sori often grow very close, forming a band very near the leaf margin. There are about 1,000 species world-wide with a number in arid climates.
  Maidenhair Fern  
Argyrochosma limitanea Cloak Fern  
Slender Lip Fern
Rock Brake
Steller's Rock Brake

                                  Members of this family are now in Ericaceae.

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Buttercup Family

Annual or perennial herbs or trailing vines. Leaves alternate, opposite, simple, deeply divided or variously compound. Flowers perfect (rarely imperfect), regular or irregular. Sepals and petals 3 to many, sepals usually petal-like and of various colors. Stamens 5 to many, pistils 1 to many. Fruit hard and dry, berry, or follicle. A number of species are showy, moisture-loving, and carpet the ground: Water-plantain buttercup (Ranunculus alismifolius), Marsh Marigold (Caltha leptosepala).

Weber places some Ranunculaceae in Helleboraceae and Thalictraceae.


Weber places Aconitum in

Red Baneberry Weber places Actea in Helleboraceae.
Colorado Columbine
Weber places Aquilegia in Helleboraceae.
Shooting Star Columbine
Alcove Columbine
Marsh Marigold Weber calls this species Psychrophila leptosepala and places it in
Western Clematis
Virgin's Bower Clematis
Weber places Delphinium in
Desert Delphinium

Ranunculus alismifolius var. montanus

Plantain-leaf Buttercup  
Eschscholtz's Buttercup  
Sagebrush Buttercup  
Graceful Buttercup  
Macauley's Buttercup  
Woodland Buttercup  
Alpine Meadowrue  
Fendler's Meadowrue Weber places Thalictrum in
Globe Flower Weber places Trollius in


Buckthorn Family

Shrubs and trees with alternate or opposite simple or compound leaves. Flowers perfect or not, regular or nearly. Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Fruit is usually a drupe or capsule. Buckbrush (Ceanothus fendleri) has minute flowers to be marveled at with a hand lens. The plant can occur in very large patches.

Ceanothus fendleri

Fendler's Ceanothus
Birchleaf Buckthorn
Smith's Buckthorn  


Rose Family

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, shrubs, or small trees. Leaves alternate or less commonly opposite, simple or compound. Flowers mostly perfect, regular, single or in clusters. Sepals and petals usually 5; stamens mostly 15, rarely 5 (commonly in several whorls of 5), pistils 1 to many. Fruit is a dry achene, pod, drupe, berry. Although the flowers of the Rose Family are very similar, the variety of fruits is an indication of the complexity of this large family. The Rose Family gives us Apples, Pears, Cherries, Plums, Strawberries, and Raspberries. Numerous Rose Family well-known and showy wildflowers and trees range through the Rockies: Mountain Avens (Geum rossii), Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), and, of course, Wild Rose (Rosa woodsii).

Alder-leaf Serviceberry
Utah Serviceberry
Mountain Mahogany  
Cercocarpus ledifolius Curl-leaf Mountain Mahogany  
Mountain Mahogany  
Shrubby Cinquefoil  
Sticky Cinquefoil
Fallugia paradoxa
Apache Plume
Little Strawberry
Virginia Strawberry
Yellow Avens
Large Leaf Avens
Alpine Avens  
Prairie Smoke
Ivesia gordonii Ivesia  
Wild Crab Apple  
Elegant Cinquefoil  
Potentilla gracilis Slender Cinquefoil  
Hippio's Cinquefoil  
Potentilla nivea Snow Cinquefoil  
Pennsylvania Cinquefoil  
Platte River Cinquefoil  
Beautiful Cinquefoil  
Red-stemmed Cinquefoil  
Poterium sanguisorba ssp. muricatum Burnet  
Cliff Rose  
Wild Rose  
Red Raspberry  
Rowan Tree  


Madder Family

Herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite or whorled, simple, entire. Flowers perfect or not, regular, usually in clusters. Flowers have 4-5 sepals, 4-5 fused petals, and 4-5 stamens. Fruit typically a capsule, drupe, or berry. Bedstraw (Galium boreale) lends a pervasive sweetness to summer hiking.
Northern Bedstraw
Fragrant Bedstraw

                                                   APG places this family in Asparagaceae (Asparagus Family).


Willow Family

Dwarf shrubs to large trees. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or toothed, rarely lobed. Flowers not perfect in catkins. Almost always dioecious. Perianth none or vestigial. Stamens (1)2-80. Pistil 1. Fruit is a capsule with numerous small seeds, each bearing a tuft of white, silky hairs. This is a very well-known family as it gives us the difficult to identify Willows (Salix spp) and the golden, fall-glowing, and easier to identify Aspen (Populus tremuloides).
  Silver Poplar  
Narrowleaf Cottonwood  
Populus deltoides
subspecies wislizeni
and subspecies fremontii
Lombardy Poplar  
Drummond's Willow  
Sandbar Willow,
Coyote Willow
Peach-leaf Willow  
Navajo Willow  
Rocky Mountain Willow  
Snow Willow  
Rock Willow  
Plane-leaf Willow  
Scouler's Willow  


Sandalwood Family

Trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes parasitic or hemiparasitic. Stipules 0. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, entire, simple, sometimes reduced to scales. Flowers small, greenish or white, bisexual or unisexual, radially symmetrical. Perianth of 1 whorl with 3-5 lobes. Stamens as many as perianth lobes. Ovary inferior or half-inferior, 1-locular. Stigma terminal, capitate or 5-lobed. Fruit indehiscent, dry or fleshy. Seed 1.
  Arceuthobium vaginatum
ssp. cryptopodum
Ponderosa Mistletoe  
Bastard Toadflax
Phoradendron juniperinum Juniper Mistletoe  


Soapberry Family

Tree, shrub, [woody vine]. Leaf: opposite [alternate], generally palmately or ternately [pinnately] lobed to compound, deciduous, petioled; stipules 0. Inflorescence: umbel, panicle, or pendent raceme, axillary or terminal. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or ± bilateral; sepals (4)5, free or fused; petals 0, 4, or 5(6); prominent disk between petals and stamens; stamens 5–12, free; ovary superior, chambers 2–3, each 2[1]-ovuled, style short or 0, stigmas 2(3), linear, or 1, unlobed. Fruit: 2(3) 1-seeded mericarps, conspicuously winged, or generally leathery, generally 1[many]-seeded capsule [berry, nut, drupe]. (From Jepson eFlora.)
  Red Maple  
Big Tooth Maple  
Box Elder  


Greasewood Family

Shrub, erect; generally monoecious. Stem: branches many, 90° to main stem, thorny, generally interlocking, generally thorn-tipped. Leaf: many, simple, cauline, generally alternate, deciduous, sessile, ± linear, flattened to subcylindric, fleshy; stipules 0.Inflorescence: staminate spikes cylindric, dense, erect, terminal; pistillate flowers 1–4, axillary; bracts leaf-like. Staminate flower: perianth 0, stamens 1–4, sessile on spike axis, concealed by peltate, angular, persistent, spirally arranged bracts. Pistillate flower: carpels 2, fused, stigmas 2, ovary 1/2 inferior; perianth cup-like, fused to ovary, persistent, forming wing in fruit. Fruit: achene, tapering above encircling, irregularly-edged wing; ± glabrous. Seed: coat thin; embryo coiled, green. (From Jepson eFlora.)


Saxifrage Family

Mostly small perennial herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate or basal, less often opposite. Simple or compound. Inflorescence Cyme, raceme, or solitary. Flowers perfect (rarely unisexual), regular or somewhat irregular. Flowers commonly cup-shaped and mostly 5-parted (but may be 3-10). Petals often clawed. Stamens as many as or twice as many as the petals. Fruit usually a capsule, sometimes a berry. This family is highly variable with a number of common and well-known species in the Rockies: Alumroot (Heuchera parvifolia) and Brook Saxifrage (Micranthes odontoloma).

The Parnassia genus is now in Parnassiaceae.

Alum Root
Smooth Woodland Star
Small Woodland Star
Delicate Woodland Star
Brook Saxifrage  
Split Snowball Saxifrage  
Snowball Saxifrage  
White Mitrewort  
Green Mitrewort  
Dotted Saxifrage
Saxifraga caespitosa Tufted Saxifrage  
Nodding Saxifrage  
Golden Saxifrage  
Whiplash Saxifrage  
Pygmy Saxifrage  
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Snapdragon Family

Annual herbs to trees, generally glandular, some ± aquatic. Stem: round to square in ×-section. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella). Inflorescence: spike to panicle (head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1–4 in axils. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4–5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4–5; stamens epipetalous, 4–5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like. (From Jepson eFlora.)

The Snapdragon Family is also known as the Figwort Family.

On the basis of genetic research, almost all members of the Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae) have been moved to other families.

For Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, and Pedicularis see Orobanchaceae.

For Mimulus see Phrymaceae.

For Besseya, Chionophila, Collinsia, Linaria, Penstemon, and Veronica see Plantaginaceae.



Nightshade Family

Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves alternate or in bundles. Flowers perfect, regular, solitary or in clusters with 4-6, usually 5 parts to united petals (often either tubular or cup-like). Fruits a berry or capsule often with a papery bag (formed from the sepals) around the berry .

The Nightshade Family is also known as the Potato Family.

Sacred Datura
Coyote Tobacco  
See Typhaceae for Sparganium angustifolium.


Tamarisk Family

Thalictraceae Weber's Thalictraceae is included in Ranunculaceae by other botanists.
Themidaceae APG places this family in Asparagaceae (Asparagus Family).


Cattail Family

Tall herbaceous semi-aquatic or aquatic perennials. Leaves alternate, long, linear, flat. Flowers densely crowded in elongated terminal clusters. Male flowers above and female flowers below in tight, brown cylinder which gradually opens and explodes with a mass of tiny, brown fruits which are attached to silky plumes that fill the air and seed themselves in any foothills wetland. Cattail (Typha latifolia) is spread across the U.S.


Elm Family

Tree. Leaf: simple, alternate, 2-ranked; veins pinnate; stipules deciduous. Flower: radial; sepals 4–9, free to fused; corolla 0; stamens 4–9, opposite sepals; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style branches 2. Fruit: 2-winged nutlet. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Ulmus pumila

Siberian Elm  


Nettle Family

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, with or without stinging hairs. Flowers imperfect, inconspicuous in clusters. Male flowers with 3-6 sepals and stamens. Female with 4 or 5 sepals or perianth lacking, pistil 1. Fruit an achene. Most well-known member of this family is Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). Hairs of this plant break off on contact, penetrate the skin slightly, and irritate with their histamine, acetylcholine, and other substances. The irritation is brief, can be intense, but can often be immediately alleviated by flooding with water.
  Stinging Nettle  
Weber's Uvulariaceae species are included in Liliaceae by other botanists.
                                             APG places this family in Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family).


Vervain Family

Annual to shrub [tree], generally hairy. Leaf: cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally 4–5-toothed; corolla 4–5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4–5 (if 4, generally in unequal pairs), epipetalous; ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2- chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral. Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule. (From Jepson eFlora.)
Wright's Vervain



Shrubs and small, perennial, mat-forming herb. The latter with lobed leaves; erect flower stems topped by a box-like structure with five flowers attached, one on top of box and one on each side. Flowers regular and perfect. Flower structure of Adoxa unique in that the number of sepals, stamens, and other floral parts of the top flower are not the same as those on the side flowers. Fruit a dry or moist berry with 4 or 5 nutlets.

The Muskroot Family is also called the Adoxa Family.

  Musk Plant


Blue Elderberry  
Red Elderberry  


Violet Family

Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, simple or divided. Flowers perfect, irregular, solitary. Sepals and petals 5 (lowermost petal spurred). Fruit a capsule. We have just six or so members of this family in our area but they are widely distributed, attractive, and well-known.
  Blue Violet  
Alpine Violet  
Bog Violet  
Yellow Violet  
Viscaceae Genera of this family are now in Santalaceae.


Caltrop Family

Shrubs or annual herbs with prostrate stems; leaves usually opposite, pinnately compound, leaflets entire; flowers perfect, regular; sepals and petals 5; stamens usually 10, pistil one; fruit splitting into nutlets.
  Kallstroemia parviflora Caltrop  
Tribulus terrestris Puncture Vine  


Family descriptions are a compilation of information from A Utah Flora, Colorado Flora, The Flora of North America, Flora of the Four Corners Region, and this website.


Browse plants by common family name.

Family Name
Family Name
Amaranth Amaranthaceae
Amaryllis Amaryllidaceae
Asparagus Asparagaceae
Bladder Fern Cystopteridaceae
Butcher's Broom Ruscaceae
Caltrop Zygophyllaceae
Cat Tail
Century Plant
Ephedra Ephedraceae
Evening Primrose
False Hellebore
Grass of Parnassus
Greasewood Sarcobataceae
Hemp Cannabaceae
Indian Pipe
Lady's Slipper
Mare's Tail
Mariposa Lily
Miner's Lettuce Montiaceae
Morning Glory
Sego Lily
Soapberry Sapindaceae
Spiderflower Cleomaceae
St. Johnswort
Twinflower Linnaeaceae
Wood Fern Dryopteridaceae
Wood Sorrel