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The discussion below provides comments about the flora of Colorado. Some of the comments are of a general nature; some refer specifically to Weber and Wittmann's often superb Colorado Flora. All of the comments have been submitted by amateur and professional botanists so that we all can better understand, appreciate, and protect the flora of Colorado.
The information on this page is not provided by Weber and Wittmann or the publishers of the Colorado Flora. It is simply the sharing of ideas and observations by interested amateur and professional botanists to provide better understanding of the flora of Colorado.
Bill Weber and Ron Wittmann state the following in the opening paragraph of their "Preface to the Fourth Edition" of Colorado Flora:
"The field guides of the Colorado Flora began in 1949 and continue to be works in progress. We learn more and more every season.... We have only scratched the surface.... The flora is so vast and complex that our work is still in the exploratory stage."
This web page is published to further the explorations.
Please review the notes you have made about the flora of Colorado from your explorations and those notes you have made in your copy of the 4th edition of Colorado Flora. Email those notes which you feel are accurate and will be of assistance to others. I will publish your notes on this web page. If you have many notes to share, feel free to send me small batches whenever you have time.
When you review the information below be sure to look at the entries for both East and West Slope as comments may apply to the flora of both slopes.
Comments are posted with a date, so you can come back anytime and see what has been added since you last updated your copy of Colorado Flora.
If you disagree with any entry you read on this web page, please let me know.
Bill Jennings contributed almost all updates about herbaria specimens and plant ranges.
Additional information about the range of all plants in the United States can be found on the superb website of the Biota of North America Project. The "List Plants by Genera" link on the main page of the Project will take you to maps showing county by county locations for every plant in the United States. The Taxonomic Data Center link will take you to an amazing amount of further information.
I hope the comments on this web page will help all of us better understand, appreciate, and protect the flora of Colorado.
Ron Wittmann has asked me to say that he would also appreciate your sharing your comments directly with him. Please send comments to:
Thanks and enjoy your explorations of Colorado's beautiful flora.
Abbreviations such as COLO (University of Colorado), CS (Colorado State University), KHD (Denver Botanic Gardens), RM (University of Wyoming), NY (New York Botanical Garden), and SJNM (San Juan College, Farmington, NM) refer to herbaria where plant specimens are stored.
Other abbreviations used:
Page numbers refer to Weber and Wittmann's Colorado Flora, either west slope or east slope.
Posted December 18, 2013:
p. 14 Family Key F4: 14a refers back to . Should refer back to .
p. 65 Asteraceae Key C, 12b. leads to 12. Should lead to 13.
p. 70 Asteraceae Key G, 5b. leads to 5. Should lead to 6.
p. 77: Symphyotrichum: 5a. and 5b. Indicates that if the pubescence of the stem is “in distinct lines decurrent from the leaf bases”, then the plant is Symphyotrichum lanceolatum. Numerous other sources, including FNA indicate that these pubescent lines are also found on other species of Symphyotrichum.
p. 197 Astragalus cicer, 60a. incorrectly points back to 57. Should point back to 59.
p. 255 Poaceae Key: 9b. refers incorrectly to 9. Should refer to 10.
p. 196 Astragalus coltonii: 54b leading to A. coltonii should say “flowers ochroleucous or purple”. See 56a (A. coltonii) which says "Flowers purple".
p. 91 Hymenopappus newberryi: “southeastern counties”. Should say “southwestern counties”. And the entry for the Eastern Slope should indicate “central and southern counties”.
p. 207 Ventanat is listed as the author for Corydalis. FNA, Intermountain Flora, A Utah Flora, BONAP, etc. list Augustin de Candolle as the author.
p. 209 Chondrophylla entry refers reader to Figures 53 F and 53 D. Should be 57 F and 57 D.
p. 241 Allionia: Carl Allioni was born 1728, not 1705.
p. 297 Flowers of E. cernuum are quite small, not “large”. Relative to E. wetherillii, the flowers of E. cernuum are "larger". Measurements would be of great assistance here and in similar places throughout the Colorado Flora. Also see the comment below on December 24.
p. 251 Goodyera oblongifolia. "Infrequent" is not correct for the western San Juans. This is a "common" plant of dry spruce forest floors.
p. 532: The drawing of the spike shows flowers with a pedicel but the glossary defines a spike as “an elongated inflorescence bearing sessile flowers”.
p. 532: The drawing of the pedicel and peduncle shows the peduncle on the left and the pedicels on the right, but the caption is reversed.
p. 530: In the drawing of a tubular flower it would be very helpful to indicate “tube”, “throat”, “limb”, “lobe”, etc.
Addition to Asteraceae: Schkuhria multiflora is not listed in the 2012 edition of Colorado Flora: Western Slope. It grows in abundance in San Juan National Forest just west of Dolores in Montezuma County. BONAP also reports it in almost all counties through the south center of Colorado.
p. 203 Pediomelum megalanthum is found in a number of locations in Canyons of the Ancients National Monument, Montezuma County, Colorado.
p. 289 Gilia sinistra is found in several areas in Montezuma County.
December 19, 2013:
p. 289 Gilia: Incorrectly states that the Gilia genus was named to honor "Felipe Gil, eighteenth century Spanish botanist". There was no such person. Ruiz and Pavon named the genus for the Italian clergyman and naturalist, Filippo Luigi Gilii. Click for more information.
p. 38 P. engelmannii (Parry) Engelmann. Placing Parry in parentheses indicates that Parry was the first to describe and name the species and that later Engelmann renamed it. That is not the case. Parry discovered the species and sent specimens (with the suggested name Picea engelmannii) to his good friend Engelmann who then described and published the new species. The correct attribution (as shown in many other floras) should be: Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelmann (with the "ex" indicating "in" and meaning that Parry named the plant and that name appeared in Engelmann's publication of the description of the plant).
December 21, 2013:
p. 312 Anemone parviflora is primarily an alpine species, but it does occur in the subalpine. Its range is 11,100 to 13,000 feet.
p. 313 Myosurus: Based on herbarium specimens, be aware that the three species of Myosurus are difficult to tell apart. Depending upon where on the specimen one looks, the species may fall into two or three camps, especially on the west slope. The east slope specimens seem to be clean, with only two species.
p. 252 Argemone: The western slope specimens of A. polyanthemos and A. hispida are introduced. A. corymbosa var. arenicola (not included in Colorado Flora) seems to be on the west slope only in the Dolores River drainage near Gateway, a small range extension from the Moab area. There is one specimen at RM that seems to be this species. On the eastern slope, the habitats of A. polyanthemos and A. hispida seem to be reversed. A. polyanthemos can be anywhere it is sandy, including the plains and the mountains, and bloom all summer (into September). A. hispida seems to occur mostly on the shales of the Niobrara Formation, but can occur in the foothills and never on the plains. It blooms only at the end of May and June, never all summer.
p. 60 Asclepias rusbyi: Occurs in La Plata, Montezuma, and Montrose counties as well as Mesa and Archuleta counties. The shape of the head and hoods is more significant than the presence/absence of hoods/horns (as Colorado Flora states) but you need A. engelmanniana to make the comparison. Your best bet is that A. engelmanniana is ALWAYS east slope while A. rusbyi is ALWAYS west slope, even into New Mexico.
p. 201 5a. & 5b. This crucial couplet about Lupinus is expressed much more succinctly and understandably in many other floras:
December 22, 2013:
Hoffmannseggia repens (not listed by W&W): There is a specimen from along I-70 in Colorado at BRY according to Simpson (1999). This is supported by Welsh et al. (A Utah Flora), but isn't supported by Isely's monograph or Barneby (Intermountain Flora). Until it is seen, it remains problematical. However, this is a Utah endemic and there are three specimens from Emery County, Utah at KHD, so it is to be expected in sands in Mesa County, Colorado.
p. 65 12b directs you to 12. Should be 13.
p. 204 Trifolium, at 7a., T. gymnocarpum is usually spelled T. gymnocarpon.
p. 309 Chimaphila drawing is at 88D, not 81D.
p. 253 (p. 265 ES) Eschscholzia californica: There is no Garfield County (GF) specimen. The only specimen at COLO is the one by Jody Nelson at Rocky Flats, Jefferson County in a very weedy area. The error lies in misreading GF (Garfield) for JF (Jefferson). There are no specimens at RM, CS, or KHD. Despite repeated searches, this species has not been seen.
Anemone canadense: There are no valid West Slope collections of Anemone canadense. The one collection supposedly taken from Hot Sulphur Springs, Grand County, is almost certainly from the Boulder area.
December 24, 2013:
p. 344 7b. top of page, Pedicularis groenlandica is found in Greenland and the type specimen is from Greenland. Click for more information and to see a photograph of P. groenlandica taken in Greenland.
p.1 "Key A (Parasites/saprophytes)".There are no saprophytic plants; there are only parasitic plants. Also, note that all of the plants listed in Key A are discussed only as "parasites"; W&W never refer to them as "saprophytes".
p. 67 Key D 7b. indicates that the following plants have "relatively large" flower heads. It is important to understand here and in similar couplets that this means "relative to those flower heads in the leads following 7a." The flower heads of Oreochrysum are not "large", but "relative" to those heads of Petradoria they are large, or better yet, "larger".
p. 87 30a. Erigeron canus leads back to ; it should lead back to .
p. 89 3a. Grindelia hirsutula sometimes does not have ray flowers.
p. 90 Helianthella microcephala is also found on Mancos Shale flats in Montezuma and Dolores Counties.
p. 102 Senecio 4b. indicates that S. crassulus has "heads few and large". That would be more accurately phrased as "heads few to many and heads larger", i.e., the heads are larger than those in 4a. Classified by themselves, S. crassulus heads would not be described as "large".
p. 108 Virgulus (Symphyotrichum): The distinction between V. falcatus and V. ericoides would be better expressed as:
p. 110 Mahonia repens 1a. should indicate, "open oak and coniferous forests".
p. 114 Mertensia franciscana should indicate, "...streamsides and moist forests openings and meadows".
p. 115 Mertensia ciliata should indicate, "blue-green leaves, very large colonies along mountain streams, sub-alpine and lower alpine".
p. 139 Streptanthella longirostris should indicate, "Easily recognized by the masses of long, pendent, slender siliques from strongly reflexed pedicels.
p. 139 Streptanthus cordatus should indicate, "replaced later by very long, broad, flat, erect siliques on upward curving pedicels".
p. 139. Thelypodiopsis aurea should indicate, "...on clay and shale, often seleniferous soils of desert-steppe...."
p. 141 1a. Cylindropuntia whipplei should indicate, ""Often just a few dm high but up to 1 meter... flowers yellow-green."
p. 142 2a. Sclerocactus parviflorus should indicate, "Adobe hills, pinyon-juniper woodlands.
p. 143 Calochortus. Add the following:
December 25, 2013:
Campanula glomerata (not listed by W&W): This is invading vacant lots in Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado. Specimen at COLO, but not listed in computerized database; specimen at RM from Grand County.
p. 155 Monolepis nuttalliana 1a., "...edges of drying ponds, "and alkaline slopes and flats".
p. 157 Zuckia brandegeei, "...slopes, arroyos, and shrublands".
p. 161 Glossopetalon spinescens petals are white, not green in all photos examined. Click to see example.
p 191 Astragalus is a huge genus of beautiful plants, but most people are intimidated by keys that focus almost entirely on the characteristics of the pods. A number of species (A. ceramicus, lonchocarpus, mollissimus, asclepiadoides, bisulcatus, pattersonii, etc.) are distinct enough that they can be identified without pods. A Utah Flora and Flora of the Four Corners Region have several Astragalus keys, some of which do not focus on pods.
p. 199 Hedysarum: H. occidentale is commonly a taller and wider, more robust, larger flowered plant than H. boreale. Also H. occidentale grows at mid-montane elevations vs. the high desert and foothills elevations typical of H. boreale.
p. 204 5b. Trifolium attenuatum: At least in the western San Juans, flowers are not "a single color", but often are a mixture of pink, white, and violet. Also the plants often form "tight", rather than "loose" mats to a meter across. Click to see.
p. 204 8a. Trifolium parryi: W&W indicate that the plant grows to "less than 1 dm [10 cm] tall. In the western San Juans it typically grows to 15 cm. Height given by other floras is 4-25 cm.
p. 210 Gentianella acuta & G. heterosepala: The characteristics given to distinguish one species from the other often fail in the field. Specimens commonly have some of the characteristics of one species and some of the other. Perhaps these are really not two species.
Also, it should be noted that most botanists do not give species status to these two taxa. Instead they are considered subspecies of Gentianella amarella.
Finally, an explanation of the phrase, "cilia of internal corolla fringe free to the base": This would be more clearly phrased as "fringe inside the corolla is continuous to the petal". "Fringe cilia usually united below" means that the "fringe inside the corolla is not continuous to the petal but instead merges into a solid sheet". Click to see the fringe (third and fourth photographs).
p. 213 9a. Ribes montigenum has light orange/pink flowers, not red flowers (at least that is their color in the western San Juans). Perhaps W&W were looking at herbarium specimens which dry to a more red color. Click to see.
p. 219 Hydrophyllum fendleri 1b. "Flowers off-white to light purple to ochroleucous...."
p. 220 Phacelia heterophylla 6a. "Abundant in meadows and woodlands of the foothills and lower montane.
p. 220 Phacelia glandulosa: Add San Juan, Hinsdale, & Mineral Counties.
p. 231 Erythronium "... especially in aspen and oak groves and subalpine meadows".
p. 237 Sidalcea neomexicana 1b. At least in the western San Juans the flowers are not purple; they are pink.
p. 246 Epilobium 5a. It is very difficult to see the "parallel ridges". Look for them at the edges of the seeds.
p. 247 Oenothera caespitosa 2a. Phrasing should be, "Flowers white, fading pink....
p. 253 Parnassia parviflora 2a. "Montane to subalpine along streams and near fens.
p. 289 Collomia grandiflora "Rare in Montezuma, La Plata, Archuleta, Garfield, and Rio Blanco Counties".
p. 290 Gilia haydenii 7a. "Clay badlands and colluvial fans....
p. 291 Ipomopsis polyantha 8b. "Endemic; in and near Pagosa Springs".
p. 293 Phlox 1a. & 1b. In botanical floras the very similar terms "cushion-like", "caespitose", "matted", etc. are used to describe many species, but when these terms are used to distinguish between species (as in 1a. & 1b.) are they really helpful? It is questionable whether most amateur or professional botanists can separate such species as Phlox hoodii (4b.) and Phlox austromontana (7a.) on the basis of these terms.
Other local floras do not use these terms to separate Phlox species; instead the floras separate Phlox species on the basis of the hairiness and membrane structure of their calyces and other morphological characteristics. They do not attempt to distinguish between caespitose and matted. In fact, in Flora Neomexicana the terms are used to describe the same plants that Colorado Flora separates with these terms: Your first choice in Flora Neomexicana is:
"Plants tightly caespitose, forming matted, cushion-like clusters...."
Following the first lead takes you to both P. hoodii and P. austromontana.
Click to see photographs of P. hoodii and P. austromontana and to read more about keying these plants.
December 27, 2013:
p. 157 Cleomella palmerana: Also spelled "palmeriana" as well as "palmerana" (no "i"). Use all spellings when accessing online databases for herbaria. W&W do not give counties, but this species has been found in Mesa, Delta, Montrose, and Montezuma counties (COLO, CS, KHD, RM). A Colorado Plateau endemic. Click to see photographs.
p. 340 Castilleja occidentalis: W&W say that Castilleja occidentalis occurs at lower elevations than Castilleja puberula, but there is no difference based on specimens.
Scrophulariaceae: Cordylanthus kingii (not listed for Colorado by W&W but should be WS): A specimen was taken about 18 miles west of the state line in Uintah County, Utah. Should be looked for in western Rio Blanco County, to the south of C. ramosus and the north of C. wrightii.
December 29, 2013:
p. 149 (p. 157 ES) Paxistima myrsinites: Some herbaria use Pachystima in preference to Paxistima. Use both spellings when doing herbarium searches.
p. 142 Opuntia erinacea: This Mohave Desert species does not occur in Colorado. All the spine combinations are now referred to Opuntia polyacantha, which may have either yellow or pink flowers.
p. 160 (p. 167 ES) Sedum acre: The Colorado Flora key indicates they are white, but all photographs on Google show them as yellow. If the Colorado plants have white flowers, they may be Sedum album, which is also cultivated and may escape. This remains problematical, as it has not been seen either in the herbarium or in the field.
p. 161 Glossopetalon spinescens var. meionandra: W&W give habitat but do not give counties. Found in Moffat, Rio Blanco, Mesa, Delta, Montrose and Montezuma counties (COLO, CS, KHD, RM, SJNM).
p. 292 Linanthastrum nuttallii is found in almost all counties on a north/south line from La Plata, Archuleta, and Conejos on the south to Routt, Jackson, and Larimer on the north.
p. 294 Polemonium viscosum and P. confertum: At least in the western San Juans, it is rarely possible to separate these because the hybrids dominate. Click to see photos and read more.
p. 294 Polygala spinosa typically grows to 15 cm tall with gray/white spiny twigs and cream to yellow and red flowers.
p. 299 Eriogonum microthecum: 31a. indicates that leaves are "broader than linear", i.e., not linear. 31a. leads to 32 and 33. Yet 33a. indicates that leaves are "linear to elliptic". 33a. should follow from 31b., not 31a.
p. 299 Eriogonum lonchophyllum: 37a. should indicate the habitat as adobe hills and flats, primarily PJ.
p. 302 Pterogonum alatum: add to the description, "... rosette of 10-22 cm oblanceolate green to red, basal leaves (visible year-round) from which arises a single flower stalk ... of minute, yellow flowers.... Our plant is biennial to monocarpic...."
p. 305 Phemeranthus parviflorus: Add the following counties to its range: La Plata, Archuleta.
p. 308 Androsace septentrionalis: Add, "Very common".
p. 310 Orthilia secunda: The statement "especially prevalent in the foothills, rarely at higher elevations" does not apply to the western San Juans, for there O. secunda is a very common plant at the base of montane and subalpine Picea engelmannii.
p. 312 Ceratocephala orthoceras: "mostly on clay soils of the low valleys, farmlands, and suburban and urban areas....
p. 313 Clematis ligusticifolia: "...conspicuous in late summer and fall and winter".
p. 315 Ranunculus uncinatus: Should indicate "to over 30 cm tall with leaves to 5.5 cm x 8.3 cm".
p. 315 Ranunculus glaberrimus: Habitat is also "damp or previously damp meadows".
p. 319 Amelanchier: The two species are often very difficult to separate. A. utahensis is generally shorter and more intricately branched.
p. 319 Cercocarpus intricatus 1a.: Instead of "low" substitute, "typically 1+ m but up to 2 m.
p. 319 Cercocarpus ledifolius 2a.: After "tree" add, "with few, straight, vertical, thick (7-20 cm) main stems to 8 m tall.
p. 321 Ivesia gordonii: "Sagebrush zone" is misleading. I. gordonii is a plant of the subalpine and alpine in western Colorado, although in its entire range it is also found from Pinus ponderosa on up in elevation.
p. 322 Padus virginiana: "Along streams, in meadows, and in woodlands".
p. 322 Peraphyllum ramosissimum: "frequent... zone, often forming thickets".
p. 325 Sibbaldia procumbens: "Common in subalpine and tundra...."
p. Sorbus scopulina: "Woodlands of montane slopes."
p. 328 Populus tremuloides 2a.: Although there are lichen on the trunks of Aspens, and although they may contribute to the white powder on the trunks of Aspen, that powder is primarily, if not exclusively, dead bark cells. Click to read more.
p. 328 Populus deltoides subspecies wislizenii 2b: This tree was formerly thought to be Fremont's Cottonwood, either Populus fremontii or P. deltoides subspecies fremontii. Click to see the different ranges of the two subspecies (bottom of the page).
p. 335 Cilaria austromontana: "flowers white with red, yellow, and orange spots...."
p. 336 Mitella pentandra 1a.: "greenish, pinnatifid petals of the spider-like flowers...."
p. 336 Mitella stauropetala 1b.: "or entire white petals of the spider-like flowers...."
p. 339 Besseya ritteriana: Not "restricted to high elevations". Should indicate, "plant is common in meadows and openings from 7,500' to near timberline".
p. 343 Pedicularis procera 6a.: This plant commonly grows to a bit over a meter tall and can be nearly 1 1/2 m tall. We don't know why this plant would be called "rank". It is lovely. Also, this and P. bracteosa commonly grow in loose colonies. P. procera might have up to a dozen plants in a colony; P. bracteosa two or three times that many. Populations are found at the edge of aspen/conifer groves, not deep in subalpine conifer stands.
p. 343 Pedicularis bracteosa 6b.: This plant can grow to nearly 1m tall and is commonly 60-80 cm tall.
p. 344 Pedicularis scopulorum 7a.: Most texts indicate that this plant grows on moist alpine tundra.
p. 344 Penstemon key 1a.: "Corolla scarlet, red, or hot pink, rarely yellow". See the other Penstemons in 2, 3, and 4 for the reason for these color additions. See especially P. utahensis below.
p. 344 Penstemon rostriflorus 2a.: "...blooming in late summer to late fall, leaves evergreen, base quite woody".
p. 344 Penstemon eatonii 4a.: Add, Blooms early spring.
p. 344 Penstemon utahensis 4b.: Add, "Corolla hot pink, corolla lobes...."
December 30, 2013:
p. 346 Penstemon linarioides 19a.: Add color: Corolla light blue and white.
p. 346 Penstemon harbourii 20a.: Add, "...growing in 30 cm diameter mats in loose alpine scree".
p. 346 Penstemon whippleanus 28b.: Add, "Plants to 40 cm tall, commonly with a number of stems in a loose cluster; corolla almost always a deep wine purple, rarely pale blue and white.... Dry montane and subalpine forests." At least in the western San Juans, "both dark and pale color variants ARE NOT found in the same population."
p. 347 Penstemon breviculus 35b: Add, "Adobe hills at lowest altitudes".
p. 347 Penstemon hallii 36a.: Add, "...corolla ...blue, pink, or violet-purple (often shocking pink-purple)...." Click to see.
p. 348 Penstemon osterhoutii and P. lentus 40a. & 40b.: These two species are very similar in morphology. Both grow to several feet tall. Habitat for P. lentus is sandy flats.
p. 348 Penstemon angustifolius 43b.: Now found in Montezuma County spreading from roadside introduction near Hovenweep and the Utah border. Also in Dolores and La Plata counties.
p. 348 Scrophularia: Add, "Aspen/conifer forests and fencerows...."
p. 349 Veronica nutans 4b.: Add, "High montane and subalpine...."
p. 349 Veronicastrum serpyllifolium: Add, "...rooting at the nodes and spreading in loose colonies...."
p. 355 Ulmus pumila: Add, "...extensively planted along highways, in long windrows along ranch borders, and around homesteads...."
p. 355 Urticaceae: Add, ".... The irritation is brief and can usually be relieved by flooding the affected area with water."
p. 356 Valeriana edulis 1a.: Add, "Gravelly hillsides, usually moist meadows; foothills, montane, subalpine, to tree-line."
p. 358 Viola nuttallii 6a.: BONAP indicates that the western Colorado species is not V. nuttallii but is instead V. vallicola.
p. 359 Viola sororia 13a.: is considered an eastern U.S. species by most botanists. Our wetland species is V. nephrophylla. Click for more details and photographs.
p. 186 Agaloma marginata: There are no herbaria specimens of this species from the Montrose area -- or anywhere on the western slope.
p. 187 (p. 196 ES): Chamaesyce serpens2a.: There is more than one specimen. All specimens (COLO, CS, RM) are from the east slope (Weld, Lincoln, Kiowa, Las Animas).
p. 187 (p. 196 ES): Chamaesyce revoluta 5a.: There are no specimens from Baca and Las Animas counties. Specimens are from Chaffee, Fremont, Otero, and Prowers counties (ES) and La Plata and Archuleta counties (WS) (COLO, CS, RM, SJNM).
December 31, 2013:
p. 188 (p. 196 ES) Croton texensis: usually found in sandy areas.
p. 188 (p. 197 ES) Tithymalus esula and Tithymalus uralensis: All specimens have been annotated as uralensis at COLO but are called esula at other herbaria (CS, KHD, RM, SJNM, NY). Whether or not there are two species is an open question. BONAP considers them to be one species, Euphorbia virgata. Other Tithymalus are also placed in the Euphorbia genus.
p. 189 Tithymalus crenulatus: This species is native to California and Oregon and is not present here. The specimen identified as T. crenulatus is Tithymalus brachyceras. This was a new species (Euphorbia manca Nelson) and has been synonymized (in error) with Euphorbia crenulata (Tithymalus crenulatus) by Harrington and Weber & Wittmann.
January 1, 2014:
p. 104 Seriphidium tridentatum 5a.: This plant dominates millions of acres and is, of course, one of the most familiar plants to people. It is found in massive numbers on mesas, flatlands, in canyons, etc. It grows especially tall (to 8-10') and thick-stemmed (to 7") in deep, sandy, moist soils. The phrase, "especially along arroyos" was perhaps meant to say, "especially robust along arroyos".
p. 206 (p. 215 ES) Frankenia jamesii: This is an obligate calciphile. Most populations in New Mexico and Texas are found on gypsum (i.e. White Sands National Monument, which is gypsum), but the populations in Colorado are found on limestone. Gypsum = calcium sulfate; limestone = calcium carbonate. W&W call the limestone found from Canon City, Pueblo, and eastward and in the Four Corners "gypsiferous," but this is largely incorrect, as this is limestone.
p. 209 (p. 217 ES) Chondrophylla aquatica: This blooms very early (May, June) and is white with green pleats, not blue. Leaves have a white margin. On the other hand, Chondrophylla prostrata blooms in late July and August and is blue.
January 2, 2014:
p. 211 Zeltnera exaltata: Zeltnera is strictly New World; Centaurium is strictly Old World. Because the herbaria have not caught up (or agree with) the change, the western slope native species that are called Zeltnera are housed in herbaria (including COLO) as Centaurium. Zeltnera exaltata has been found in Moffat, Mesa, Delta, and Montrose counties, but specimens are often misidentified as Zeltnera (Centaurium) calycosum or Z. (C.) arizonicum. The ones listed are the only specimens seen; all the rest remain problematic.
Gentianaceae p. 211: Zeltnera arizonicum is not listed by W&W but should be, for it occurs in Montezuma County (Colyer, COLO, misannotated as C. exaltatum; Porter, SJNM, misidentified as C. calycosum). Billie Turner of Texas has re-interpreted the genus Centaurium (before it was re-re-interpreted as Zeltnera) to find that C. calycosum occurs only in central Texas and the only taxon in the western USA is C. arizonicum. Again, these are the only specimens seen.
p. 211 (p. 220 ES) Geranium bicknellii. To the given counties, add Boulder, Jefferson, and Rio Grande counties (ES) and Archuleta County (WS).
p. 215 Aquilegia micrantha: W&W do not give counties. Specimens are found from Moffat, Mesa, Delta, and Montrose counties. The spurless form has been collected twice at the same location in Montezuma County. Flowers occur that are mostly white, blue, or yellow, so the leaf/stem characteristics are more important than flower color. Fortunately, only Aquilegia micrantha occurs in the habitat specified. The Grand and Garfield (Hanging Lake and vicinity) county specimens are not Aquilegia micrantha. The Garfield county specimens are Aquilegia barnebyi.
p. 219 Hesperochiron pumilus: This species has been collected only once in WS and that collection is from Montezuma County, where it is disjunct from Uinta, Summit, and Emery counties, Utah. The Montezuma location given may be under McPhee Reservoir.
January 4, 2014:
p. 219 Phacelia scopulina is not listed by W&W but ought to be: If Phacelia submutica is assigned to Phacelia scopulina, then there are two varieties of P. scopulina in Colorado (vars. scopulina and submutica). If not, then Phacelia scopulina ought to be listed by itself as a separate species. P. scopulina is found in Moffat County (specimen at CS); P. submutica is found in Garfield and Mesa counties, as given (COLO, CS, KHD, RM).
p. 220 13a. & 13b. (p. 228 6b. ES) Phacelia bakeri, P. glandulosa, & P. splendens: The relationship among these three is not clear from the specimens at COLO. Identification may be difficult or impossible. P. bakeri & P. glandulosa occur both ES & WS
January 5, 2014:
p. 233 Adenolinum pratense. Adenolinum pratense and Adenolinum grandiflorum (mentioned in passing) do not occur on the west slope.
p. 233 Mesyniopsis kingii. Also known from Eagle County (RM).
January 6, 2014:
p. 235 Nuttallia multiflora 7b.: This lead does not include the east slope species, but includes the west slope Nuttallia laciniata, a species that surrounds the southern San Juan Mountains.
January 8, 2014:
p. 237 Sphaeralcea leptophylla: The range given by W&W is too broad. Found only in Mesa and Montezuma counties. A specimen (COLO) with the county not given, collected by Brandegee in1875, was probably taken in Montezuma County.
January 9, 2014:
p. 220 13a. & 13b. (p. 228 6b. ES) Phacelia bakeri & P. glandulosa. W&W indicate that P. bakeri is found in sagebrush valleys, but almost always it is a subalpine and alpine species. A few herbaria specimens labeled as P. bakeri are from below the subalpine with some (almost certainly incorrectly labeled) as low as 6,500'. Although between 6,500' and 9,500' you might find either P. bakeri or P. glandulosa, usually in that elevation range the species will be P. glandulosa. Below 6,500 the species is certainly P. glandulosa; above 9,500' it is P. bakeri. Duane Atwood, Phacelia expert, indicates that P. bakeri differs from P. glandulosa "in the lack of excavations on the ventral surface of the seeds, usually greener herbage, later flowering time, and distribution [i.e., elevation]". Atwood indicates that P. bakeri is found from the lower montane to the alpine whereas P. glandulosa is found from the semi-desert to the lower montane. Click for photographs and to read more.
p. 342 Mimulus eastwoodiae: W&W just say "southwestern counties" and this is too broad. The species has been collected in Mesa, Delta, & Montrose counties only according to herbaria records (COLO, CS, KHD, RM). SEINet and several other sources show a Montezuma County, Colorado voucher for this species at Colorado State University. That voucher is incorrectly labeled. It was found in Montrose County, Colorado.
January 10, 2014:
p. 339 Besseya ritteriana: This has been found in southwestern counties, not just San Juans.
January 11, 2014:
p. 348 (p. 368 ES) Pocilla polita: All specimens are from lawns, gardens, rest areas, etc.
p. 348 (p. 365 ES) Scrophularia lanceolata: This is not a montane plant. The lowest elevation plants are at about 5500 feet near Eldorado Springs.
January 13, 2014:
p. 244 (p. 256 ES) Calylophus in general. This was split out of Oenothera, as W&W show, but is in Oenothera, and herbaria may or may not show the change.
p. 244 Camissonia walkeri: Found in Mesa, Montrose, and Montezuma counties (COLO, RM, NY). Called Cylismia at RM and NY. W&W say it was found on limestone, but the type was found on gypsum in the Paradox valley. Gypsum = calcium sulfate; limestone = calcium carbonate. Intermountain Flora accurately says the habitat is: "ledges, talus, sandy or clay soil."
p. 246 (p. 257 ES) Epilobium anagallidifolium: Welsh et al. (1987) and Intermountain Flora use Epilobium alpinum. See Intermountain Flora for an explanation of why. However, COLO, CS, KHD and RM use Epilobium anagallidifolium. Use both species when you are expecting Utah specimens.
January 14, 2014:
p. 246 Gaura neomexicana: The specimen supposedly taken in Otero County, Colorado, was actually taken near Cloudcroft, Otero County, New Mexico. Otherwise this species is known in Colorado from along US 160. Called Oenothera neomexicana at RM.
January 15, 2014:
p. 248 Oenothera longissima: There are several records from Montezuma County, as W&W say. Add to list Cottonwood Spring, Delta County (COLO), which is a natural area, not a roadside or irrigation ditch.
p. 248 Oenothera deltoides: This is called Oenothera kleinii at some herbaria.
January 16, 2014:
p. 203 Parryella filifolia: There is only one specimen (Weber in 1949, COLO, duplicate at CS). This is peripheral, as W&W say, but there should be more collections, as it is in common in New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah. A specimen at Arizona State, attributed to Colorado, was actually taken in Utah.
January 17, 2014:
p. 344 (p. 365 ES) Penstemon in general (includes p. 363 ES Leiostemon): Intermountain Flora sorts Penstemons by section, which is by anther type. It is unusual for more than one member of a section to be blooming in one place. So, if you know where you are and what section you are in, you should be able to navigate the Intermountain Flora keys. As far as W&W are concerned, it would be a good idea to mark which section you are in.
p. 344 Penstemon rostriflorus: All specimens are from Dolores, Montezuma, and La Plata counties. W&W have mistaken DT (Delta County) for DL (Dolores County). Most herbaria specimens are from Mesa Verde, but the plant is found (even commonly) in many other locations, such as, Canyons of the Ancients National Monument. Penstemon rostriflorus is the sole member of section Bridgesiani in Colorado.
p. 344 Penstemon eatonii: This and Penstemon barbatus are the only Colorado members of section Elmigera. This is found only in Montrose, Dolores, and Montezuma counties. Specimens found elsewhere are Penstemon barbatus.
January 18, 2014:
p. 345 Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis: This is in section Glabri (15 species in Colorado). This occurs only in Rio Blanco County. All others are different varieties of Penstemon scariosus.
p. 345 Penstemon mensarum: This is in section Glabri (15 species in Colorado). Occurs in Pitkin, Mesa, Delta, and Gunnison counties, an area east of the shale areas around Delta and Montrose and south of the Colorado River, mostly on Grand Mesa. Specimens from elsewhere are misidentified.
January 19, 2014:
p. 345 Penstemon cyanocaulis: This is in section Glabri (15 species in Colorado). This occurs on the Uncompahgre Plateau (Mesa, Montrose, and San Miguel counties), but is not endemic, since it also occurs in Utah.
p. 346 (p. 367 ES) Penstemon caespitosus: This is in section Caespitosi (nine species in Colorado, with a liberal interpretation). W&W have Penstemon caespitosus include a variety of species, that, contrary to what W&W indicate, can be recognized. Penstemon caespitosus in the strict sense of the name occurs in Jackson (ES) and Moffat, Routt, Rio Blanco, Grand and Summit counties (WS) for sure (north of the Colorado River).
Specimens labeled as P. caespitosus from the southwest counties, including those from Mesa Verde, are P. crandallii.
The various taxa split off from Penstemon caespitosus have received different treatment from different authors. Penstemon crandallii (which may or may not include Penstemon teucrioides) occurs in a narrow swath across the state from Teller to San Miguel counties. Penstemon teucrioides has about the same range. Penstemon procumbens occurs north of Crested Butte to Grand County. Some place it into synonymy with Penstemon crandallii. Penstemon glabrescens (which some place into synonymy with Penstemon crandallii) occurs in Archuleta and La Plata counties. Penstemon ramaleyi (which some place in synonymy with Penstemon glabrescens, in turn placed into synonymy with Penstemon crandallii) occurs around Villa Grove west into the Cochetopa Basin. Penstemon retrorsus is the most distinctive and occurs on the Mancos Shale near Delta and Montrose.
In his book, Penstemons (1999), Robert Nold indicates that he has grown the above taxon in his garden and he gives most of them species status. W&W accept none of them. Nold suggests that every plant discussed above be recorded separately.
This group of Penstemons is badly in need of taxonomic work.
p. 346 Penstemon harringtonii: This is in section Coerulei (11 species in Colorado). Occurs from Grand and Routt through Pitkin and Garfield counties, as W&W say, but very scattered. Has two stamens protruding from flower; very noticeable.
p. 346 Penstemon watsonii: This is in section Penstemon (11 species in Colorado). Occurs from Grand County north and west.
January 20, 2014:
p. 346 (p. 367 ES) Penstemon confertus ssp. procerus: This is in section Penstemon (11 species in Colorado). Occurs in Moffat, Grand, Garfield, Summit counties (WS) and Larimer. Boulder, Gilpin, Lake, Park, El Paso Counties (ES). This is a creamy yellow Penstemon with erose calyx and dentate leaves of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana in typical form. These are not characteristics of Colorado plants. Other than W&W, references have not been seen that place P. procerus as part of P. confertus. This and the next are often browsed and come up in the protection of sagebrush plants.
p. 346 (p. 367 ES) Penstemon rydbergii: This is in section Penstemon (11 species in Colorado). This and the previous are often browsed and come up inside sagebrush plants where they are protected. More common than the previous.
January 21, 2014:
p. 347 Penstemon parviflorus, Penstemon ophianthus, and Penstemon breviculus (different places, but on the same page). These are in section Cristati (7 species in Colorado, not counting Penstemon parviflorus and Penstemon ophianthus). We have Penstemon breviculus, but do not have Penstemon ophianthus. (Note: as of 2017, P. ophianthus has been collected in five southwest counties of Colorado.. Penstemon parviflorus has not been seen since 1890 in an area that is well collected.
The types of P. breviculus and P. parviflorus are both from Mancos and are 8 years apart, have the same range, and it is unlikely that P. parviflorus would become extinct in such a short period. Penstemon parviflorus is synonymous with Penstemon breviculus. Penstemon breviculus is known from Montrose, San Miguel, Montezuma, and La Plata counties. The Barneby and Atwood specimens from Mesa County are Penstemon moffatii. The specimen from San Juan County is from Utah or New Mexico.
p. 347 Penstemon grahamii: This is in section Cristati (7 species in Colorado). Known only from western Rio Blanco County, as W&W say.
January 26, 2014:
p. 348 Penstemon osterhoutii: This is in section Coerulei (11 species in Colorado). This is known from northwestern Colorado: Moffat, Routt, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Eagle, Grand, and Pitkin Counties. Specimens from San Miguel, Montrose, and Montezuma counties (WS) are Penstemon lentus. The Gilpin County (ES) specimen is in error.
This is one of those rare instances where two species in the same section bloom together (Penstemon osterhoutii and Penstemon harringtonii), but the differences between them during blooming preclude hybridization. Penstemon osterhoutii has a staminode that is very hairy, curved, and almost fills the throat. The stamens are included. Penstemon harringtonii has two stamen that exceed the corolla.
p. 348 Penstemon lentus: This is in section Coerulei (11 species in Colorado). This is known from southwestern Colorado: Archuleta, La Plata, Montezuma, Dolores, San Miguel, and Montrose counties. Specimens called Penstemon osterhoutii from this area are Penstemon lentus. The staminode of Penstemon lentus (not dilated; only sparsely hairy) is very different from the staminode of Penstemon osterhoutii (very hairy; widely dilated; almost filling the throat). Click for photos and to read more.
Penstemon palmeri is not in W&W but should be ES and WS. This would be Colorado's sole member of the Spectabiles. This species is widely used in revegetation and landscaping. Known from Rio Blanco, Montrose, Dolores, Montezuma, Gunnison, and Pitkin counties (WS); Boulder and Jefferson counties (ES). Undocumented, but present in Adams (Prairie Gateway Open Space), Jefferson (revegetation along new US 285), and Boulder (at South 120th St. and Dillon Road) counties. While most are at roadside, they are very obvious. The collections near the Utah State Line may be natural populations, as its range is to the west of us.
p. 232 (p. 242 ES) Armeria scabra ssp. siberica: Most taxonomists consider this as a variety of Armeria maritima. Use both when doing herbarium searches. Be aware that some taxonomists consider it a variety; some consider it a subspecies. Some consider it a species of the Limoniaceae; some consider it a species of the Plumbaginaceae.
p. 289 Collomia grandiflora: Montezuma and Rio Blanco as W&W say, but add Garfield and La Plata counties.
p. 289 Gilia pinnatifida: Aliciella mcvickerae is mentioned in passing as present in Moffat County. Add Rio Blanco County. It is suspected that research will show that some specimens are not Gilia pinnatifida or are not intermediate to Gilia stenothyrsa ("hybrids").
p. 290 Gilia triodon, Gilia leptomeria, and Gilia micromeria: Placed in Aliciella. These probably represent a polyploid complex and their status and distribution is indeterminate at present, in spite of what W&W say. Expect to find one or more of these along the Utah state line. Intermountain Flora subsumed all of these taxa under the name Gilia leptomeria.
p. 290 WS Gilia sinuata, Gilia tweedyi, Gilia ophthalmoides (p. 306 ES), and Gilia clokeyi. Still placed in Gilia. These four probably represent a polyploid complex, with Gilia ophthalmoidses being the only one on the east slope. Gilia clokeyi is synonymous with Gilia ophthalmoides, but Gilia clokeyi occurs only on the west slope. Their status and distribution is indeterminate, in spite of what W&W say. Intermountain Flora subsumed all these under Gilia inconspicua, which is supposed to be the proper name for this complex.
p. 291 Ipomopsis gunnisonii: All specimens are from Montezuma County.
p. 292 Ipomopsis ramosa: A Colorado endemic and, as W&W say, all specimens are from Montezuma County, but there are no specimens in the COLO database even though the holotype is at COLO.
January 27, 2014:
pp. 293-294 (pp. 309-310 ES) Polemonium brandegeei, Polemonium viscosum, and Polemonium confertum: These may all hybridize to some degree.
Ackerfield says that Polemonium viscosum is foul-smelling and pollinated by flies, whereas Polemonium confertum is sweet-smelling and pollinated by ants.
As long as Polemonium brandegeei is well below timberline, it occurs in typical form, but when it is above timberline, it occurs in what appears to be hybrid form. Do not be surprised that your specimen is difficult to key. Click for photographs and more information.
W&W do not give counties for P. brandegeei (also spelled brandegei): Colorado southern counties with herbaria specimens of P. brandegeei are La Plata, Rio Grande, Alamosa, Mineral, Hinsdale, and Gunnison. All other specimens are from the far eastern slope or far northwest on the western slope. There are no specimens at any herbarium from Montezuma, Archuleta, San Juan, or Conejos counties.
January 28, 2014:
p. 304 Claytonia rubra: Claytonia rubra is known only from the eastern slope. The report from the Green River Canyon has a good possibility of being C. perfoliata, which is known from Utah. Like W&W, no specimens have been seen at any herbaria in Colorado.
p. 305 Oreobroma nevadensis: Ackerfield considers this western slope species as only a variety of Oreobroma (Lewisia) pygmaea. Flora of North America shows only the southwestern quarter of the state, but it occurs in Moffat County, too.
January 29, 2014:
p. 206 Quercus havardii var. tuckeri: As W&W say, Quercus havardii does not occur in the Four Corners area. Quercus havardii var. tuckeri is a hybrid of Quercus gambelii and Quercus turbinella, but a new name has been applied to it: Quercus x welshii. This occurs in the Fremont County vicinity, where there is a disjunct population of Quercus turbinella, and along the Utah State Line from Mesa County south and along the New Mexico State Line in Montezuma and La Plata counties. Herbarium specimens may be called Q. turbinella, Q. gambelii, Q. havardii, Q. havardii x Q. turbinella or Q. gambelii x Q. turbinella.
January 30, 2014:
p. 310 WS and p. 326 ES Ranunculus in general. Be advised that W&W recognize Batrachium, Ceratocephala, Cyrtoryncha, Halerpestes, and Hecatonia, while other works and herbaria use Ranunuculus exclusively.
January 31, 2014:
p. 315 WS and p. 331 ES Ranunculus pygmaeus. There are a total of 10 counties (total for both slopes) across the state in the mountains in which this has been taken. Since the plant is extremely inconspicuous, it may very well be found in more locations.
p. 315 WS Ranunculus jovis. There are a few specimens from Moffat, Routt, and Eagle counties, not just Moffat, as W&W say.
February 1, 2014:
p. 340 Castilleja haydenii and Castilleja rhexiifolia (p. 362 ES): At least in the western San Juans, there are two additional morphological factors that separate C. haydenii from C. rhexiifolia: 1) the color of the bracts: light pink in the former and bright rose in the latter; 2) the height of the plants: not more than about 4 inches for the former and not less than about 5 inches for the latter.
Also, W&W indicate in 9b., p. 340 WS, that C. rhexiifolia is within the category of a plant only of "forests and lowlands". At least in the western San Juans, C. rhexiifolia is a gorgeous plant of the sub-alpine and lower alpine, as correctly noted in the new Flora of the Four Corners Region.
p. 316 WS and p. 322 ES Ceanothus velutinus. Widespread, as W&W say, but mostly north-central and northwestern counties.
p. 316 WS Frangula obovata. Called Frangula betulifolia or Rhamnus betulifolia at various herbaria. The one Colorado specimen thought to be this species is supposedly at SJNM (San Juan College) and is from La Plata County, Colorado, but no specimens have been found at any herbarium.
A specimen at CS is attributed to Colorado, but the specimen was actually taken in Utah.
It is a real possibility that Frangula obovata may be found in Mancos Canyon or along the Dolores River.
p. 316 WS Rhamnus smithii. W&W do not give counties. Found in Archuleta, La Plata, Montezuma, Dolores, and San Miguel counties in the southwestern part of the state, but also found in Mesa and Rio Blanco counties, a somewhat disjunct population from those farther south. States to the south and southeast use Rhamnus serrata for plants previously referred to Rhamnus smithii var. fasciculata. It isn't known whether our plants are included in this switch, but Kartesz indicates that R. serrata is distinct from R. Smithii.
February 2, 2014:
p. 212 WS and p. 221 ES Ribes in general. The key used is key A, vegetative features.
February 3, 2014:
p. 319 WS and p. 334 ES Agrimonia striata. There are quite a few more counties, particularly on the west slope, than W&W give: San Miguel, La Plata, Hinsdale, Mineral, Gunnison, Archuleta. On the east slope: Larimer, Boulder, Denver, Jefferson, Douglas, El Paso, Fremont, Pueblo, Baca.
p. 319 WS and p. 334 ES Amelanchier alnifolia and Amelanchier utahensis. The distinction between these taxa is far from clear-cut. A Utah Flora, first edition (1988), says it best: "Segregation of all specimens in the alnifolia - utahensis complex is difficult, if not impossible. Diagnostic features show overlap, and while trends are apparent in the vast amount of material available, the best of characteristics fail singly and often in combination as well".
However, we can perhaps make a distinction as follows: utahensis is usually on poor or thin soils at lower elevations (high-desert), is shorter (typically to perhaps 3-5 feet), and is often more intricately branched; alnifolia is generally on thick soils in the foothills, has longer and straighter stems to nine feet.
p. 319 WS Cercocarpus intricatus and Cercocarpus ledifolius: C. intricatus was named and described by Watson in 1875, but soon after that (1880) Marcus Jones reduced it to varietal status as C. ledifolius var. intricatus. Confusion (Jones named the taxon C. arizonicus in 1891) and disagreement has continued to the present, but Weber, Welsh, Cronquist, and Heil all now separate the two as distinct species.
Although these two taxa are sometimes difficult to distinguish from each other from herbarium sheets and somewhat difficult to distinguish from each other in the field when they are only a foot or two tall, as they grow they are distinct in the field:
C. intricatus is intricately branched with thin stems, grows to only 2-6 feet tall, has strongly revolute leaves, and grows at lower elevations.
C. ledifolius grows with straight thick stems (to 6 inches thick), grows to 24 feet tall, has gently revolute leaves, and grows at higher elevations.
Both species are quite uncommon to rare on the western slope, but are common in Utah. Cercocarpus intricatus: Moffat, Rio Blanco, Mesa, Montrose, San Miguel, Montezuma counties; Cercocarpus ledifolius: Moffat and Mesa counties.
February 4, 2014:
p. 320 WS Coleogyne ramosissima. W&W are correct when they say Dolores and Colorado river systems, although most of the specimens are from near Gateway (WS). Brandegee collected the specimen in 1875 "near Hovenweep Castle," so the species should be in Montezuma County.
p. 321 WS and p. 338 ES Holodiscus discolor. Most herbaria use the name Holodiscus dumosus for our plants, reserving the name H. discolor for the Northwest (Washington, Oregon) and H. microphyllus for the West (California).
February 5, 2014:
p. 322 WS and p. 338 ES Padus virginiana. This has been collected at least as high as 9,500 feet. Thus, it is plains, foothills, montane, and maybe higher, depending upon the exposure.
p. 322 Physocarpus alternans. W&W give "western counties." Only Mesa and Moffat counties are documented. Other counties are misidentified.
p. 322 WS and p. 322 ES Purshia tridentata. This occurs on the west slope from about 6,000 to at least 9,200 feet. In the Front Range it is a foothills and lower montane plant. On the east slope south to Douglas County, but widespread on the west slope, as W&W say.
p. 325 WS Rosa nutkana. This does not occur it Colorado, or west of the Cascade-Sierra divide (Washington, Oregon, California). The taxon W&W call R. nutkana in Colorado is just a part of the natural variation of Rosa woodsii (Rosa blanda). This is a highly variable species.
There are, however, several other authorities in addition to W&W do maintain that Rosa nutkana exists in Colorado.
February 6, 2014:
p. 319 WS and p. 334 ES Amelanchier alnifolia and Amelanchier utahensis. Here is another point of view (also see February 3, 2014) about Amelanchier in our area. Are there three species?
The utahensis at lower elevations has dry and non-fleshy fruit.
Then there is the short one with fleshy good to eat fruit in the middle highland dry slopes. It is only 5 or 6 feet high at the most and is not branched much.
Then there is the really tall one, up to 10 or 12 feet in wet bottoms, usually along waterways and it also has fleshy good to eat fruit.
p. 326 WS Spiraea douglasii. This was taken at a lumber mill near Clark (Routt County, north of Steamboat Springs) and is the only specimen from Colorado (COLO). The specimen states that it was "not definitely known whether it was cultivated." This in not carried at all in Ackerfield, p. 434. The fact that it was taken in the sawmill yard seems to indicate a cultivated plant.
February 7, 2014:
p. 326 WS and p. 344 ES Galium verum. Known from Gunnison and Routt (WS and Boulder and El Paso (ES) counties (COLO, CS).
p. 326 WS and p. 345 ES Galium septentrionale. As W&W say, this is also called G. boreale at some herbaria. There are over 100 records at COLO.
p. 326 WS and p. 345 ES Galium trifidum. Note that in W&W, the western slope variety (brevipes) is different from the eastern slope variety (subbiflorum). They are not recognized at all herbaria.
February 8, 2014:
p. 327 WS and p. 345 ES Galium mexicanum var. asperrimum. W&W give some counties on the east slope. Known from Rio Blanco, Garfield, Mesa, and Mineral (WS); Larimer, El Paso, and Las Animas (ES) counties.
Should be in W&W WS, but isn't: Houstonia rubra. Should be looked for in McElmo Canyon, Montezuma County, since it was collected in 2000 near Bluff in adjacent San Juan County, Utah.
February 9, 2014:
p. 335 WS Heuchera rubescens and p. 355 ES Heuchera versicolor. At some herbaria, these are considered varieties of H. rubescens, rather than as species.
February 10, 2014:
p. 336 WS and p. 356 ES Lithophragma glabrum. This occurs in at least 14 counties on the west slope, but is recorded only from Jackson, Larimer, and Boulder counties on the east slope.
p. 337 WS Sullivantia hapemanii. Known from Eagle, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Pitkin, Gunnison, and Montrose counties (mostly from Garfield and Gunnison).
p. 98 Scorzonera laciniata is listed under Podospermum laciniata. It has been present in Southwest Colorado at least since 2007. As W&W indicate it is present in Delta, Montezuma, & Archuleta counties but it is also present in La Plata and in almost all counties from north to south through the center of the mountains, the east slope, and many prairie counties.
February 12, 2014:
p. 360 WS Parthenocissus quinquefolia. There are no west slope specimens. It might be found around towns.
The difference between P. quinquefolia and P. vitacea is shown in the keys; otherwise one might think that they are the same, since they look the same. The difference is in the manner that they attach themselves to the subject material, shown only by the keys.
p. 357 WS and p. 378 ES Valeriana capitata var. acutiloba. This is called Valeriana acutiloba in some floras and at some herbaria.
p. 161 WS and p. 169 ES Cucurbita foetidissima. Native from Colorado Springs south and east. Introduced all over the east slope as far north as southern Wyoming and on the west slope in Mesa, Montezuma, La Plata, and Archuleta counties. James collected this in its native habitat in 1820. Provided there is not any snow, this species is easy to spot along I-25 and other roadways from gourds and dead stems.
p. 162 WS and p. 169 ES Echinocystis lobata. Native all over the east slope on the plains (but not in the foothills); introduced in Alamosa County and on the west slope in Ouray, Montezuma, and La Plata counties. Really obvious along Buck Highway (county road 521) south of Bayfield, La Plata County.
pp. 370-371 WS and p. 371 ES Chamaesaracha coronopus. W&W are correct regarding east slope range and habitat, but on west slope it is only in Montezuma and La Plata counties. Colorado is its northernmost range. More common in New Mexico and Texas.
p. 351 WS and p. 372 ES Hyoscyamus niger. Collected intermittently in the western 2/3 of the state (not on plains). W&W are correct that this is highly poisonous.
February 14, 2014:
pp. 351-352 WS and p. 373 ES Solanum rostratum. The natural range of this is unknown, as W&W say, but it appears that it is native on the Great Plains. Plants growing near the metro areas of the east slope and near cities on the west slope are probably weed introductions.
p. 352 WS and p. 373 ES Solanum triflorum. W&W do not say this, but it is usually (but not always) associated with prairie dog towns. Found all over Colorado, but probably native to the Great Plains.
February 15, 2014:
p. 357 WS Viola biternata. Called Viola sheltonii at many herbaria. Plants are limited to Garfield, Mesa, Delta, and Montrose counties, mostly on Grand Mesa or immediately adjacent areas.
p. 358 WS Viola utahensis. Listed by W&W as present in Moffat county, but some botanists include this as part of the variation of Viola purpurea.
February 16, 2014:
p. 358 WS and pp. 380-381 ES Viola scopulorum and Viola rydbergii. Most western floras call these species by one name, Viola canadensis. Intermountain Flora, CS, and RM use Viola canadensis. Whether there are three, two, or one species must await research on the species. Use all names when doing herbarium searches.
Research by Fort Lewis College Professor Ross McCauley and his students seems to confirm that the alpine blue violets are a taxon separate from Viola adunca and should be named Viola adunca variety bellidifolia or Viola bellidifolia. Click to see photographs and read more.
February 17, 2014:
p. 342 Mimulus eastwoodiae. SEINet and several other sources show a Montezuma County, Colorado voucher for this species at Colorado State University. That voucher is incorrectly labeled; the Mimulus was found in Montrose County, Colorado. All records are being corrected.
March 11, 2014:
Penstemon caespitosus & Penstemon crandallii. W&W indicate that Penstemon caespitosus occurs "westward and northward from Gunnison County" and most other sources agree. However, W&W include P. crandallii in P. caespitosus and most other sources keep these as separate species and indicate that P. crandallii is the mat Penstemon of southwest Colorado. Click for more details and photographs.
May 1, 2014:
p. 212 7a. Probably should read "Flowers ... on a very short pedicel", not "sessile".
May 13, 2014:
The Western Slope 4th edition for Erysimum (p. 131) is incorrect. 1b. should go to 4, not to 3. The Eastern Slope and Western Slope keys for Erysimum have exactly the same wording in every entry. The only difference is the mistake made in 1b. in the Western Slope edition.
May 16, 2014:
p. 290 W&W indicate that Aliciella subnuda is included in Aliciella haydenii. The two are considered separate species by other botanists. The presence of A. subnuda in Colorado is, however, questionable. Those specimens collected and labeled as A. subnuda all are probably A. haydenii.
Also, A. haydenii may indeed be found on "colluvial fans from sandstone parent rock", but it is widely found on Mancos Shale, e.g., in and near the entrance to Mesa Verde National Park.
May 27, 2014:
p. 188 Tithymalus (which should now be called Euphorbia): 2b. should lead to 5 and 3b. should lead to 4.
June 9, 2014:
The Asteraceae Key D for both Western & Eastern Slope volumes presents choices that are not mutually exclusive and therefore are quite confusing:
4a. Leaves progressively reduced in size upward...(5)
4b. Leaves about equally distributed along the stem or concentrated upward...(6)
4a asks about the size of the leaves; while 4b asks about the distribution/concentration of the leaves.
This is a classic case of lack of parallelism in a key.
When this couplet leads to confusion, use another key, such as, the Flora of North America (online), Welsh's A Utah Flora, or Harrington's Manual of the Plants of Colorado.
June 21, 2014:
p. 46 Eremogone congesta: W&W indicate that this is a plant of "upper montane and subalpine" and while this may be true in some parts of Colorado, it definitely is not true for all of Colorado (nor is it true for other states). The Flora of the Four Corners Region indicates that the plant occurs from 7,400' to 9,800'; A Utah Flora indicates that the plant occurs from about 6,500' to 10,000'; and a new flora of Colorado indicates the plant is found from 6,800' to 12,600. The key point here is that E. congesta is found from low foothills to alpine, not just from "upper montane" to "subalpine". It is abundant, for instance, in Mesa Verde National Park at ~7,700'. The Flora of North America indicates that throughout its western range (from California to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado) the plant is found as low as 3,800' and no higher than ~10,800'.
W&W also indicate that the plant is found on "gravelly soil" and although that may be true, it is also found on sands and shales.
July 30, 2014:
p. 54 Angelica grayi W&W indicate "alpine screes". This plant is also commonly found in meadows and forest borders from about 11,000 feet upward.
June 13, 2016:
p. 100 Linnaeus named the genus Rudbeckia for Olof Rudbeck, the son, not for for both the father and son. Click to read more on this website.
Posted December 20, 2013:
p. 53 Froelichia floridana almost certainly occurs not only in Sedgwick and Phillips Counties, but also in Kit Carson, Baca, Weld, Lincoln, and El Paso, Las Animas, Fremont Counties.
p. 53 Froelichia gracilis: There is a specimen at CS that is labeled "Summit County." The locality is given as Ute Pass. While there is a Ute Pass in Summit County, the more likely Ute Pass is near Manitou Springs on Highway 24. There is a specimen from COLO from nearby Cascade. Otherwise, it would be the only West Slope specimen at CS, COLO, or KHD.
p. 55 Apiaceae key, 9a. & 9b. Several people have commented that such words as "low" vs. "tall" (or "large" vs. "minute", etc.) are often too vague. More precise measurements, such as, under 15 cm vs. over 15 cm would be much more understandable. Perhaps such language will be added in future editions of Colorado Flora. For now, consult floras, such as the online FNA, Harrington's Manual of the Plants of Colorado, Welsh's A Utah Flora, and Intermountain Flora) that give complete descriptions, with measurements, of all plants.
p. 60 Osmorhiza 3A: Definition of "rays" for Apiaceae is not given in the glossary. "Ray for Apiaceae = Branch of an umbel."
p. 328 (p. 312 WS) Regarding Anemone multifida var. globosa and var. saxicola: Specimens at COLO called "saxicola" are above and below timberline and specimens from the same collection are in different files ("saxicola" and "globosa"). Flowers have been photographed at Tolland, Colorado (9000 feet) that had the coloration of saxicola and at 9500 feet in Saguache County that had the coloration of globosa. The comment in FNA is probably correct in that characteristics are influenced by environment and there is, therefore, most likely just one taxon which is variable.
p. 328 Anemone virginiana does not occur in Colorado. The sole Colorado specimen thought to be A. virginiana is actually Anemone cylindrica.
December 21, 2013:
p. 328 Anemone parviflora is primarily an alpine species, but it does occur in the subalpine. Its range is 11,100 to 13,000 feet.
p. 329 Myosurus: Based on herbarium specimens, be aware that the three species of Myosurus are difficult to tell apart. Depending upon where on the specimen one looks, the species may fall into two or three camps, especially on the west slope. The east slope specimens seem to be clean, with only two species.
p. 265 (p. 252 WS) Argemone: : The western slope specimens of A. polyanthemos and A. hispida are introduced. A. corymbosa var. arenicola (not included in Colorado Flora) seems to be on the west slope only in the Dolores River drainage near Gateway, a small range extension from the Moab area. There is one specimen at RM that seems to be this. On the eastern slope, the habitats of A. polyanthemos and A. hispida seem to be reversed. A. polyanthemos can be anywhere it is sandy, including the plains and the mountains, and bloom all summer (into September). A. hispida seems to occur mostly on the shales of the Niobrara Formation, but can occur in the foothills and never on the plains. It blooms only at the end of May and June, never all summer.
p. 62 Asclepias uncialis is USUALLY, but not always, trailing; hence the size. As an aside, its root can be up to 4 feet long and deep.
p. 63 Asclepias pumila is ALWAYS erect and is clonal, hence the large stands. You are much more likely to see A. pumila than A. uncialis.
p. 63 Asclepias engelmanniana grows right up to the edge of the mountains (Highway 36, north of Boulder).
December 22, 2013:
p. 129 Brassicaceae Key A, 17b. leads to 17. Should lead to 18.
p. 121 Boraginaceae 4a. & 4b. Separating Boraginaceae at this couplet on the basis of color does not work since such genera as Lappula and Hackelia are often white.
p. 129 Brassicaceae Key B, 3a. & 3b. It is often quite difficult to see the veins. Other keys do not use this characteristic.
p. 130 Brassicaceae Key B, 21a. Erysimum should say "flowers usually yellow, sometimes orange, rarely violet at highest elevations".
p. 131 Brassicaceae Key B, 24b. "aquatic or marsh plants, some (Rorippa) in roadside ditches"
p. 138 Erysimum 1a. & 1b. Petal length includes the narrowed petal base (the "claw").
P. 144 Physaria montana 15a. P. montana also grows grows on the plains in at least Washington, Lincoln, Pueblo, and Las Animas Counties.
p. 199 Fabaceae key at 12b. should lead to 32 not 31.
p. 265 Glaucium flavum: The one specimen at COLO was taken by Bill Weber in a vacant lot at 18th and Pearl in Boulder. The species has never again been found in this location or any other location in Colorado and probably should not even be in Colorado Flora since it is a horticultural entity. If it is included, then there are thousands of horticultural entities that probably should be included.
p. 265 Glaucium corniculatum: "Recently infesting grasslands on Boulder Open Space." Only two specimens at COLO and CS exist, from the same locality (Eagle Trail, Cooper in 1994 and Jennings in 2007). No specimens at RM or KHD. Seldom seen, despite repeated searches, and hardly "infesting."
Papaver orientale (not listed in Colorado Flora.) There are localities in Boulder Canyon where this species exists, but are not documented (Maslin Garden in Boulder County is documented at COLO). At COLO, CS, KHD, and RM there are invasive specimens from Larimer and Jefferson counties (ES), and Garfield, Ouray, and Routt counties (WS).
Papaver somniferum (not listed in Colorado Flora.) There is one specimen at COLO from Manitou Springs, possibly from a garden. It was seen but it is not listed in the database. There are no specimens at RM, CS, or KHD.
p. 119 Berberis fendleri (p. 110 WS): The range as given by Colorado Flora is too broad. Limited on East Slope to Hinsdale, Rio Grande, Conejos counties (and, according to BONAP, Lake County & Saguache (RM) Mineral (Heil)); West Slope: Mesa, Montrose, San Miguel, Dolores, Montezuma, La Plata, and Archuleta counties. The range is the western and southern perimeter of the San Juan and Uncompahgre uplifts.
p. 121 Campsis radicans (p. 111 WS): Widely cultivated and escaping sometimes, as stated by W&W. There are two Colorado specimens: near Grand Junction, Young in 1983 (COLO) and near Canyon of the Ancients National Monument, Heil et al. in 2002 (SJNM). However, this escapes more than is shown by specimens, as it clings to the side of a building in downtown Niwot; was seen climbing a guy wire in Martin Acres; and climbing a sign post at Foothills and Valmont, all in Boulder County. Should be looked for in other warm areas. In the Flora of the Great Plains, it is reported to be an aggressive weed southward.
Cassia fasciculata (not reported by W&W): According to the Atlas of Flora of the Great Plains, this extends westward in the Arkansas Valley to the Colorado state line in Hamilton and Greeley counties, Kansas. To be sought in eastern Prowers County, Colorado.
Gleditsia triacanthos (not reported by W&W): This occurs in western and eastern Colorado and on the eastern plains. At various herbaria (COLO, KHD, RM, SJNM) there are 13 specimens, some of which were taken from cultivated situations; some of which are not.
p. 208 Hoffmanseggia glauca: There are specimens at COLO from Otero and Baca counties, but there are specimens at CS and KHD from Pueblo and Bent Counties as well. Found sparingly at the northern limits of its range up and down the Arkansas River valley.
p. 211 Pomaria jamesii: W&W list this as "scattered on the plains," but it is much more widely distributed as indicated by specimens at COLO, CS, KHD, RM and NY from Weld, Yuma, Washington, Lincoln, Adams, Elbert, El Paso, Kit Carson, Cheyenne, Pueblo, Crowley, Otero, Bent, Prowers, Las Animas, and Baca counties.
December 24, 2013:
p. 267 Plantago 5a. "...reddish brown wool (pull a basal leaf to see the wool)".
p. 316 Polygonum 1a. "Stems distinctly 8-16 ribbed (look especially at mid-stem leaves)....
p. 327 Hecatonia scelerata is considered Ranunculus sceleratus by BONAP and other botanists. For the key on p. 327 the best phrasing would be:
p. 330 Ranunculus 3b. Several Ranunculus (e.g., R. macounii) that follow from 3b. are emergent and found in mud.
p. 345 8a. & 8b. Galium spurium is considered the same as Galium aparine by BONAP and other botanists.
p. 207 Desmanthus illinoensis: W&W give range as Baca (BA) County, but COLO, CS, and KHD give range as Denver, Logan, Yuma, Kit Carson, Cheyenne, Otero, Bent, Prowers, Las Animas, and Baca. Adding RM and BONAP will probably give more.
p. 211 Prosopis glandulosa: W&W give Las Animas as only county, but specimens exist at COLO from Baca County.
p. 150 Campanula aparinoides: W&W say "Extremely rare, collected by Parry in northern South Park in 1861 and once in the Denver region by Eastwood." The specimen was collected by Hall and Harbour in 1862; Parry was never in South Park in 1861. Further, the plant is a plains species and could never have been collected by Hall and Harbour in South Park. There are pale and depauperate specimens of C. rotundifolia or C. parryi from the Denver area and that is probably what they got. In Weber's book (C. C. Parry: King of Colorado Botany) he notes that the specimen is "A depauperate form."
Downingia laeta (not listed by W&W): There are no Colorado records, but Dorn (Wyoming Flora) lists this from Uinta, Carbon, and Albany counties, Wyoming , so there doesn't seem to be any reason why it should not be in ES & WS (Moffat, Routt, Jackson, or Larimer counties, Colorado).
p. 151 Lobelia cardinalis: W&W say that this species occurs at the east end of the Mesa De Maya, without giving any county. There are specimens at COLO from Yuma, El Paso, Pueblo, Las Animas, and Baca counties.
December 27, 2013:
p. 164 Cleomella angustifolia: There are actually two specimens (1912 COLO and 1891 CS). Flora of the Great Plains says this species is in southwestern Nebraska, so we should find it more commonly in Colorado.
p. 153 Viburnum opulus: This is mentioned only in passing by W&W, but it is a very obvious shrub that is often collected, usually in cultivated situations but sometimes not. There is a specimen along the Bobolink Trail in Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks by Shawver (COLO) that is not a cultivated specimen. There are actually two bushes along here. The second is not visible from the trail. A third is on the north side of Baseline Road, away from the Open Space and may be either cultivated or escaped. In Gregory Canyon (Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks) there are at least three bushes escaped.
p. 362 Castilleja haydenii and Castilleja rhexiifolia (p. 340 WS): Spanish Peaks is mentioned by W&W and there are a few specimens from here, but actually most specimens from that area are from Sangre de Cristos and east edge of the San Juans on the eastern slope.
At least in the western San Juans, there are two additional morphological factors that separate C. haydenii from C. rhexiifolia: 1) the color of the bracts: light pink in the former and bright rose in the latter; 2) the height of the plants: not more than about 4 inches for the former and not less than about 5 inches for the latter. Also, W&W indicate in 9b., p. 340 WS, that C. rhexiifolia is within the category of a plant only of "forests and lowlands". At least in the western San Juans, C. rhexiifolia is a gorgeous plant of the sub-alpine and lower alpine.
December 29, 2013:
p. 148 Cylindropuntia imbricata. W&W say the spines are hooked. They are not hooked but have serrations on the edge which makes them very hard to pull out without a pliers (no kidding!).
p. 148 Echinocereus coccineus: W&W say that these are "weakly distinguished from the next [E. triglochidiatus]." These are called E. triglochidiatus var. melanacanthus by some. They have the type from the same locality on the same day and they are members of a polyploid complex. There are many of those in the Cactaceae.
Crassulaceae: Spathulata spuria should be listed for ES, as there are specimens at CS and KHD from east slope. Specimens from RM and COLO are from the west slope. It has also been seen in Boulder Canyon (ES), but there are no records.
p. 168 Glossopetalon spinescens var. planitierum. W&W give habitat but don't give counties. Found in Pueblo and Las Animas counties (COLO, CS, KHD, RM).
p. 206 Dalea nana: There are specimens at COLO from Pueblo, Cheyenne, and Baca counties, but not Crowley (CW). That specimen is at CS, along with Baca County records. John C. Fremont is supposed to have collected the specimen at Bent's Fort in Otero County in 1845 (NY). It should be up and down the Arkansas River in proper habitat.
December 30, 2013:
p. 195 Argythamnia humilis: The sole specimen is Jones in 1879, Colorado College (COCO). This is shown in the Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains as being present in Morton and Hamilton counties, Kansas, which border Colorado. Apparently native at the western limit of its range, but not seen in over 100 years.
December 31, 2013:
p. 197 Tithymalus cyparissias: There are no specimens at any herbaria except one at COLO which is from a ranch house in Routt County. In spite of the fact that this is a noxious weed, it has not been seen except in cultivation.
p. 197 Tithymalus peplus. Most specimens are from gardens, but two are from natural situations in Boulder and Jefferson counties (COLO, CS, KHD). Whether it is established is uncertain at this time.
January 1, 2014:
p. 216 Fumaria vaillantii: W&W give Jefferson, Larimer, and Las Animas counties correctly, but it is also found in Weld, Denver, Adams, and Pueblo counties (COLO, CS, KHD, RM).
p. 218 Frasera coloradensis: W&W do not give counties, but it is present in Bent, Prowers, Las Animas, and Baca counties. There are numerous specimens at KANU (University of Kansas), since a great deal of research has been done on this Great Plains endemic.
January 2, 2014:
p. 217 Centaurium pulchellum: Since this is a Mediterranean weed, it is still placed in Centaurium instead of Zeltnera. It has been found in Weld and Elbert counties. The Hazlett specimen at RM identified as C. calycosum is almost certainly C. pulchellum.
p. 225 (p. 215 WS) Delphinium geyeri: This does not occur southwest of Jefferson County, in the San Luis Valley, or on the western slope except in Moffat County. All other specimens are in error.
p. 225 (p. 215 WS) Delphinium nuttallianum. Delphinium geyeri and Delphinium nuttallianum bloom at about the same time, but D. geyeri is always on the plains and is bigger and D. nuttallianum is always in the mountains and smaller. The distinction is apparent once you have seen both species.
p. 228 (p. 219 WS) Hydrophyllum capitatum. This has been found on the east slope in Jackson and Conejos counties. The specimens are at CS and RM. The specimens at all other herbaria are from the west slope.
January 4, 2014:
p. 228 Phacelia denticulata and lead 3b. Specimens at COLO are white or light blue and the calyx has a denticulate or erose margin. Lead 3b. will not work as written. Change to: "Smooth, denticulate, or erose margin and purple, light blue, or white flowers."
January 5, 2014:
p. 229 Hypoxis hirsuta: Counties are not specified: Custer, Denver, Las Animas, & El Paso counties. The El Paso specimen is the last time it was collected in Colorado (1959), but Tass Kelso of COCO reported it from the Black Squirrel drainage, east of Colorado Springs. This is a real find for Colorado.
p. 235 Krameria lanceolata. W&W are correct, but older references may show Krameria erecta or Krameria parviflora from Colorado on the basis of Aven Nelson 1034 at RM, which was supposed to have been collected at Durango. This is a specimen from the Mohave, Sonoran, or Chihuahuan deserts well to the south of us. Exactly where Nelson got the specimen is unknown, but it could not have been in Colorado.
p. 243 Adenolinum pratense: There are quite a few specimens from Boulder, Jefferson, Kiowa, Pueblo, Bent, Otero, Prowers, Las Animas, and Baca counties. There are 3 specimens of A. grandiflorum taken on different dates, but the same year and the same location in Boulder County (COLO and KHD).
p. 243 (p. 233 WS) Adenolinum perenne and Adenolinum lewisii: One needs a large population of Adenolinum perenne to see the heterostyly, since the feature is on different plants. On some plants the anthers exceed the style; on others the reverse is true. A. perenne has stems coming out of the ground nearly erect with lots of flowers that have gone to seed. A. lewisii has stems coming out of the ground at a low angle with few fruits. Go out before 7 a.m. and see the difference in color.
p. 243 (p. 233 WS) Linum usitatissimum: This is only found as a cultivated plant and should not be expected as a volunteer on the western slope. Specimens at CS are correct, but the ones at other herbaria should not be believed. Inquiry was made to the Department of Agriculture and flax has never been grown commercially in Colorado. It requires a deep, rich, acid loam to grow and has been cultivated successfully in Canada and Minnesota.
January 6, 2014:
p. 244 Acrolasia gracilis: Most authors consider this the same as Acrolasia albicaulis. The fact that it is chromosomally different from Acrolasia albicaulis is not considered significant in the Loasaceae.
pp. 244-245 (pp. 234-235 WS) Nuttallia in general is very difficult to identify and several species can only be properly determined based on seed characteristics. Proper determination can sometimes be almost impossible.
p. 245 Nuttallia multiflora 1b.: Nuttallia chrysantha (yellow) is on the limestone plateaus from Canon City to Pueblo. Nuttallia densa (yellow) is in the Arkansas River canyon from Canon City to Salida. Nuttallia reverchonii (yellow) is in southeast Colorado. Nuttallia speciosa(yellow) occurs in the foothills and mountains from Boulder to the limestone plateaus, but does not occur on limestone. Nuttallia sinuata (yellow) occurs from southern Wyoming to Eldorado Springs and seems to be a chromosomal variant of Nuttallia speciosa. Nuttallia multiflora can be just about anywhere in the state. Flower color is of little help, as Nuttallia multiflora has yellow, white and yellow, or white variants.
January 7, 2014:
p. 247 (p. 237 WS) Abutilon theophrasti: Most local herbaria specimens are weeds from gardens or cultivated fields. The west slope specimens are weeds from gardens from Rico Way in Mesa County. Specimens from the east slope are mostly weeds from gardens, but two are from natural situations.
January 8, 2014:
p. 248 Malvella sagittifolia: There is one record (COLO), as given by W&W. This is placed by Flora of the Great Plains as far north as Bailey County, Texas, and may not be native here.
January 9, 2014:
p. 363 Mimulus lewisii: W&W say it may be in North Park, but there are 3 specimens at COLO and 3 specimens at RM from Jackson County (North Park) (COLO, CS, KHD, RM), besides the specimens from Routt County.
Mimulus suksdorfii is not listed for Colorado, but should be for both ES & WS. Specimens at COLO called Mimulus breweri are Mimulus sufksdorfii or Mimulus rubellus. According to BONAP, M. sufksdorfii occurs in Montezuma, Dolores, Montrose, Mesa, Gunnison, Rio Blanco, Moffat, Route, and Grand counties (WS) and Larimer (ES).
p. 364 (p. 343 WS) Mimulus rubellus: W&W do not give counties. Mimulus rubellus is present in Moffat, Routt, Garfield, Mesa, Gunnison, Montrose, & Montezuma counties of the west slope (WS) and Huerfano County of the east slope (ES).
January 10, 2014:
p. 360 Agalinis tenuifolia: Northeast Colorado is its range, but there is a specimen at COLO that gives the site of collection as "Gray's Peak" (Clear Creek County), an impossible location. This is a plains plant. It is an indicator of high quality wetlands in the piedmont valleys.
p. 360 (p. 339 WS) Bacopa rotundifolia There are relatively recent specimens at CS from the CSU campus, but the last time this was found in Colorado was in 1949. There are old specimens at CS and COLO from Denver, but no specimens from Durango. Harrington reported that the species "had been reported from the southwestern portion of the state."
p. 362 Chaennarhinum minus: There are specimens from the same spot at COLO and CS, but nothing was found at the one location of collection.
January 11, 2014:
p. 369 (p. 349 WS) Veronica in general: Species in Veronica are mostly polyploid, so expect most to show an array of forms. Be aware that Veronicastrum is used as a section within Veronica and an unrelated genus within Flora of the Great Plains.
p. 368 Verbascum blattaria: W&W are correct about Verbascum blattaria. The hybrid Verbascum X pterocaulon is mentioned in passing. In spite of what W&W say, the hybrid is seen almost every year at a site along US 36 (Denver-Boulder Turnpike), as well as at least four sites in Boulder, Broomfield (formerly Boulder), and Jefferson counties. The hybrid occurs wherever both the parents occur.
p. 369 Verbascum phlomoides: Found in Boulder, Jefferson, and Fremont counties (COLO, CS, KHD, RM).
January 13, 2014:
p. 256 Calylophus hartwegii var. pubescens: W&W say southeastern Baca County, but there are specimens at COLO, CS, and RM from Las Animas County.
p. 256 (p. 244 WS) Camissonia in general: This has recently been revised and placed in several genera that W&W do not show. The genera are given with the species, but herbaria may or may not have made the change. Also try Oenothera when doing herbarium searches.
January 14, 2014:
p. 257 (p. 246 WS) Epilobium leptocarpum: There are no specimens at COLO or CS. Annotations at COLO are by Peter C. Hoch of Missouri Botanical Gardens and we are following him. Specimens at other herbaria should not be believed.
p. 258 (p. 246 WS) ES Gaura coccinea: Almost all specimens are from the eastern slope; only a few are from the western slope. Called Oenothera suffretescens at RM.
January 15, 2014:
p. 259-60 (p. 247-48 WS) Oenothera in general: Oenothera has been revised recently to include Calylophus, Gaura, and Stenosiphon. W&W do not give synonyms. Most specimens at COLO are still placed in the traditional genera, but be aware that at some herbaria the genera or species are called different names.
p. 259 Oenothera grandis: There are specimens (CS, RM) from El Paso and Weld counties, but none at COLO.
p. 260 Oenothera latifolia: This is considered a variety of Oenothera pallida at some herbaria. The relationship of Oenothera latifolia and Oenothera pallida (all varieties) is debatable at present.
January 16, 2014:
p. 264 (p. 252 WS) Oxalidaceae in general: It appears that the taxonomy of Oxalis is in chaos, with numerous names being applied to specimens with minor differences. It appears that polystyly is the source of this confusion. In Colorado it seems that we have one native species (Oxalis alpina, with specimens called O. violacea, O. metcalfei, and O. caerulea) and one introduced species (with specimens called Oxalis corniculata, O. stricta, and O. dillenii). What we really have remains to be seen.
January 17, 2014:
p. 365 (p. 344 WS) Penstemon in general (includes p. 363 ES Leiostemon): Intermountain Flora sorts Penstemons by section, which is by anther type. It is unusual for more than one member of a section to be blooming in one place. So, if you know where you are and what section you are in, you should be able to navigate the Intermountain Flora keys. As far as W&W are concerned, it would be a good idea to mark which section you are in.
p. 365 (p. 344 WS) Penstemon barbatus: This and Penstemon eatonii are the only Colorado members of section Elmigera. In general, var. torreyi occurs from Chaffee, Park, El Paso counties southward on the east slope and in Saguache, Gunnison and Montrose counties on the west slope. It is replaced by var. trichander on the west slope in San Miguel, Montezuma, La Plata, and Archuleta counties.
p. 365 Penstemon laricifolius: This is in section Cespitosi (10 species in Colorado). Northwestern Larimer County only; there are no specimens from North Park (Jackson County). Specimens from Gunnison and Huerfano counties are misidentifications.
January 18, 2014:
p. 365 Penstemon albidus: This is in section Cristati (8 species in Colorado).
p. 366 (p. 345 WS) Penstemon glaber: This is in section Glabri (15 species in Colorado). This occurs along the Front Range south to Fremont County and on the western slope in Grand County.
January 19, 2014:
p. 367 (p. 346 WS) Penstemon harbourii: This is in section Penstemon (11 species in Colorado). Occurs in the alpine from Grand (WS) and Clear Creek (ES) counties, southwesterly to La Plata County.
p. 366 Penstemon grandiflorus: This is in section Coerulei (11 species in Colorado). Occurs in Weld, Washington, and Yuma counties on plains (COLO, CS).
p. 366 (p. 347 WS) Penstemon hallii: This is in section Glabri (15 species in Colorado).
p. 366 ES and should be on the west slope. Penstemon virgatus ssp. asa-grayi. This is in section Glabri (15 species in Colorado). Called Penstemon unilateralis at some herbaria. East slope, generally in the mountains, state line to state line; abundant in Park County and in the San Luis Valley. Blooms later than Penstemon secundiflorus. The few west slope specimens probably represent introductions.
January 20, 2014:
p. 366 Penstemon versicolor: This is in section Coerulei (11 species in Colorado). Occurs on limestone in Fremont, Pueblo, Otero, Las Animas, and Baca counties. This is endemic to Colorado. W&W's reference to Penland (who did the Penstemons) is in Harrington's Manual of the Plants of Colorado.
In the western slope flora, W&W say var. vernalensis is a species of the eastern plains. (It is a species of western Colorado). W&W ignore var. angustifolius and var. venenosus. Ackerfield recognizes var. angustifolius and var. caudatus and synonymizes var. vernalensis under var. angustifolius and var. venenosus under var. caudatus. Ackerfield is correct in my (Bill Jennings) opinion.
January 21, 2014:
p. 368 (p. 347 WS) Penstemon radicosus: This is in section Penstemon (11 species in Colorado). Found only in Moffat County (WS) and Jackson County (ES), but to be expected in Routt County. Specimens from elsewhere are misidentifications.
p. 367 Penstemon auriberbis: This is in section Cristati (7 species in Colorado). South of Colorado Springs on the east slope and a few feet into New Mexico near Branson, eastern Las Animas County.
January 26, 2014:
p. 368 Penstemon gracilis: This is in section Penstemon (11 species in Colorado). W&W show the range too narrow; it occurs from Boulder to Las Animas counties along and in the lower mountains.
p. 305 (p. 287 WS) Polemoniaceae in general. Like many other families that are part of the Colorado Flora, the Polemoniaceae seems to be developing species rapidly. There are a number of endemic species with very limited ranges. There are polyploid complexes that show some morphological differences between entities with different ploidy levels. Self-pollination seems to be common. Generic limits are hard to define. Nearly all species except those in Polemonium or Phlox have been placed in Gilia at one time or another. This situation has led to widely divergent perspectives within the Polemoniaceae.
p. 306 (p. 289 WS) Gilia tenerrima: There is one collection from the west slope (Moffat County), as W&W say, but since this occurs in western Wyoming and northern Utah, there doesn't seem to be a chance that that it occurs on the east slope. Should not be in the ES. Also, as W&W note, this species is known as Lathrocasis tenerrima (Gray) L.A. Johnson.
p. 307 Giliastrum acerosum: W&W do not give counties: Fremont, Otero, Bent, Huerfano, Las Animas, and Baca counties. More common in New Mexico.
p. 308 (pp. 291-292 WS) Ipomopsis aggregata complex and Ipomopsis tenuituba: The taxonomy of this group is treated many ways, but Ackerfield recognizes subspecies aggregata, candida, collina, attenuata, weberi, and tenuituba. Subspecies formosissima, which occurs as far northwest as Mesa County, is part of subspecies aggregata. Subspecies tenuituba is the same as Ipomopsis tenuituba. This complex has short-tubed and long-tubed flowers; anthers within and without; with lobes both attenate and stubby.
p. 308 (p. 292 WS) Leptodactylon in general. This has been recast and W&W do not give synonyms, which may be used at some herbaria.
Leptodactylon pungens = Linanthus pungens;
Leptodactylon caespitosus is known only from Moffat (WS) and Weld (ES) counties. The specimen from Mesa de Maya is Eremogone hookeri. In regards to Leptodactylon watsonii, specimens are from Moffat, Rio Blanco, Garfield, Mesa, and Montrose counties.
p. 308 (p. 292 WS) Microsteris gracilis: Found in almost every West Slope county and about half of the East Slope counties. W&W limit the East Slope counties to Larimer and Weld.
January 28, 2014:
p. 318 (p. 303 WS) Portulacaceae in general. The Flora of North America effort is mediocre and should not be relied upon. In Ackerfield, many of the species are placed in Montiaceae (instead of Portulacaceae), which W&W do not recognize.
p. 310 (p. 304 WS) Claytonia lanceolata and Claytonia rosea: Claytonia lanceolata is common on both slopes. Claytonia rosea is common only along the Front Range, but there are scattered specimens from southwestern Colorado. Be advised that some herbaria do not recognize Claytonia rosea and in these it may be subsumed in Claytonia lanceolata.
p. 320 (p. 305 WS) Phemeranthus parviflorus: This occurs all over the eastern Colorado plains and lower mountains. Add the San Luis Valley and add Saguache (Cochetopa Hills, west side) and Archuleta counties to the area it occurs. Be aware that some herbaria still use Talinum in preference to Phemeranthus.
January 29, 2014:
p. 215 (p. 206 WS) Quercus gambelii: As W&W say, this is a very common plant, in many bewildering forms, from Red Rocks Park (Morrison and Evergreen) southeastward at the margin of the mountains; on the Mesa de Maya; in Chaffee County; on the east margin on the San Luis Valley; in Conejos County on the slopes of Cumbres Pass; and at lower elevations on the west slope (17 counties).
All Quercus species hybridize where their ranges overlap, making concrete determination difficult or impossible. However, as an aid, Quercus gambelii has stellate trichomes on the bottom of the leaf usually with 5 or fewer arms, and the top of the leaf catches the light in such a way as to be reflective, usually visible to the naked eye on herbarium specimens. Also, Quercus gambelii is frequently observed with Ponderosa Pine, other species of Quercus are not.
Hybrids occur along the Utah State Line south from Mesa County and along the New Mexico State Line in Montezuma and La Plata counties and from Fremont County south on the east slope.
There are at least 11 names that have been applied to "pure" (whatever that means!) Quercus gambelii. Don't be surprised that your specimen does not match the key perfectly.
p. 215 (p. 206 WS) Quercus turbinella: This occurs in best form on Sleeping Ute Mountain, but occurs on Mesa Verde and up and down the Dolores River (Montrose, Montezuma, and La Plata counties) and in Fremont County in nearly "pure" form. The bottom of the leaf has trichomes that usually have 8 or more arms, but are "starfish-like" and are radiating (flat).
January 30, 2014:
Should be in W&W (ES) Ranunculus acris. The specimens called Ranunculus acriformis from the Front Range communities are R. acris, based on the length of the beak (short, 0.2 to 1.0 mm = R. acris; long, 1.0 to 1.5 mm = R. acriformis) and other morphological features. Again, dimensions alone are evidence that there is only one species, but see Ackerfield for more details of the difference between the two.
January 31, 2014:
p. 331 ES and p. 315 WS Ranunculus gelidus. W&W do not give counties. Found in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Summit Counties (WS) and Clear Creek, Lake, Park, Chaffee, and (perhaps) Boulder counties (ES).
February 1, 2014:
p. 322 ES Frangula alnus. The "slopes above Boulder Creek" is the hillside behind the herbarium between 19th and Folsom. This is well inside the city. These records are probably for persistent cultivated plants, rather than true escapes. Not mentioned as adventive in any other western flora.
p. 333 ES Rhamnus cathartica. W&W do not give counties, but the locations and habitat are correct (Larimer, Boulder, Jefferson, and El Paso counties).
February 2, 2014:
p. 221 ES Ribes americanum (Ribes niveum mentioned in passing). Ribes americanum occurs from Fort Collins to Colorado Springs along the Front Range, mainly on the floodplain of large rivers. (In Larimer, Jefferson, Denver, Arapahoe, Douglas, El Paso counties).
Regarding Ribes niveum, it is impossible to say whether it is introduced or not. It is found in Fremont County. The oldest specimen is by Brandegee in 1873. It was relocated by Chumley in 1995. This is shown a second time on p. 222 ES and is more complete.
February 3, 2014:
p. 325 ES Cerasus pensylvanica. The fruit of Cerasus pensylvanica (Pincherry) is single and noticeably smaller than the fruit of Padus virginiana (Chokecherry).
February 4, 2014:
p. 336 ES and p. 320 WS Crataegus in general. Crataegus is in chaos, with over 1,000 names proposed. In Colorado, on the west slope, there are C. saligna (C. douglasii var. duchesnensis), C. rivularis, and C. douglasii. Only C. douglasii is recognized, with the others as intergrading varieties.
On the east slope, W.W. Ashe collected the same place in the Cache la Poudre Canyon on August 20, 1899, and described C. chrysocarpa, C. erythropoda, and C. colorado (the last now synonymized under C. succulenta). Only C. succulenta is recognized. As a result, none of W&W's species is recognized for what they are. Only C. douglasii on the west slope and C. succulenta on the east slope are recognized. See Ackerfield (pp. 425-426) for details.
p. 339 ES Oreobatus deliciosus (Rubus deliciosus) In 1820, Edwin James was never in what was to become Boulder County. He followed the east bank of the South Platte and collected the type material at the mouth of Platte Canyon (not Boulder Canyon). Oreobatus (Rubus) neomexicanus is recognized by New Mexico and Arizona botanists as distinct. Oreobatus deliciosus occurs along the Front Range (ES) and in Unaweep Canyon (WS).
February 5, 2014:
p. 338 ES Physocarpus opulifolius. In spite of what W&W say, this does not occur in Colorado; all specimens are Physocarpus monogynus and this has the range of P. opulifolius. They are not intermediate. See Ackerfield p. 427.
p. 322 ES Prunus americana. Found on the eastern slope on the plains, the Front Range, and Wet Mountains up to at least 6700 feet.
p. 343 ES Rosa glauca. This is in the herbarium, but is not in the COLO online database and this species is not in any other online database. Supposedly, It has been taken in Gregory Canyon, but after extensive searching, that plant no one has been able to locate that plant. The nearest cultivated plants are about three blocks down the hill on Baseline Road, and the specimen could have come from there. Extensively cultivated in town; very obvious, even from a car.
p. 343 ES Rosa canina is not recognized by W&W but should be. This occurs in Boulder Canyon and along Jay Road in Boulder County.
February 6, 2014:
p. 343 ES and p. 325 WS Rubacer parviflorum. Most specimens (17 counties) are from the west slope or the San Luis Valley on the eastern fringe of the San Juans. A few specimens are from Jackson, Boulder, Douglas, El Paso, and Pueblo counties on the main part of east slope. Based on specimens, it is frequent on the west slope, but not the east.
There are two specimens of Rubus occidentalis at local herbaria (CS; none at COLO), one of which is recent (2008). Since this is cultivated for blackberries, it may indicate that it has escaped far more frequently than thought.
February 7, 2014:
Should be in W&W east slope, but isn't: Cotoneaster lucida. This is widely planted in town for landscaping, but occasionally escapes. Known from Boulder, Arapahoe, and El Paso counties. There are four records in the COLO database (Long Canyon and Gregory Canyon). Escapes have been noted (undocumented) along the Bobolink Trail and in Bluebell Canyon, all in Boulder Mountain Parks and Open Space, and in Aurora Jewell wetland (Aurora, Colorado). This is carried in Ackerfield, p. 425.
Should be in W&W east slope and west slope, but isn't: Malus pumila. This is the cultivated apple. Old groves of planted apples, but long neglected, are common. It is easy to find apple trees at roadside, along ditches, and at creekside, particularly in April and May when they bloom. There are specimens from at least Larimer, Boulder, Jefferson, Arapahoe, El Paso, Pueblo, Las Animas (ES) and Garfield, Mesa, Montezuma, San Juan, and La Plata (WS) counties. There are undocumented occurrences in Boulder Mountain Parks and Open Space and in Aurora Jewell Wetland.
In addition to the cultivated apple, there are locations for crabapples that are undocumented. In Boulder County alone, there are plants growing along the Bobolink Trail in Boulder Mountain Parks and Open Space and at Colorado 42 and 96th Street in Louisville.
Should be in W&W east slope and west slope, but are not: Prunus spp. This includes Prunus persica (peach), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Prunus domestica (cultivated plum), as well as others. These have all been found near cities and near the fruit-growing areas in Mesa, Montrose, and Delta Counties. As an example, the most obvious introduction is a peach tree in Glenwood Canyon (Garfield County, CS). Usually they are found alongside roads but could show up just about anywhere.
p. 345 ES Galium pilosum. The "northernmost" locality does not work. This is an eastern species, with a range mostly east of the Mississippi. It is not carried in Ackerfield at all (pp. 434-435). What W&W mean and what Tass Kelso has found is an open question.
February 8, 2014:
p. 345 ES Hedyotis nigricans. There are only two specimens from Yuma County, as W&W say. These are at COLO, with duplicates at CS and RM (McGregor in 1981 and Wittmann in 1981). Called Stenaria at some herbaria.
February 9, 2014:
p. 355 ES and p. 325 WS Chrysosplenium tetrandum. W&W give the proper habitat, but don't give counties: Eagle, Grand, Summit (WS); Larimer, Boulder, Clear Creek, Park (ES).
p. 355 ES and p. 325 WS Ciliaria austromontana. There are 75 records at COLO alone. Called Saxifraga bronchialis at some herbaria. Considered to be variety austromontana by some. Use all when doing searches.
p. 355 ES and p. 325 WS Conimitella williamsii. There are only a few specimens (COLO, CS, RM), mostly from along the Ute Pass road, but also from near Hot Sulphur Springs (Summit, Grand). This is unlikely on the east slope. This deserves research.
February 10, 2014:
p. 357 ES Spatularia foliosa. Known only from Clear Creek County (Mount Evans), as W&W say. Some herbaria place this in Micranthes or Saxifraga.
p. 357 ES Telesonix jamesii. Known from Larimer, Jefferson, Park, El Paso, and Teller counties. Some herbaria include this with Boykinia or Saxifraga.
February 12, 2014:
p. 370 ES Smilax lasioneura. Larimer County south along the Front Range to Pueblo County. Easiest to find in early winter when all the leaves have dropped from the trees scrambled upon, yet the leaves have not dropped from the Smilax. Also called Smilax lasioneuron or Smilax herbacea var. lasioneuron at some herbaria.
Betula X eastwoodiae is mentioned in passing. This was first known without the X as a new species. It was since determined to be the hybrid between Betula papyrifera and Betula occidentalis. It is known in City Creek Canyon, near Salt Lake City, Utah.
p. 263 ES and p. 251 WS Orobanchaceae in general. Some herbaria and floras include Agalinus, Castilleja, Pedicularis, Cordylanthus, and Orthocarpus within the concept of the Orobanchaceae.
p. 382 ES Vitis riparia. This is found on the northeastern plains as well as the Front Range foothills.
pp. 382-383 ES Vitis acerifolia. Known from Pueblo, Bent, Otero, Las Animas, and Baca counties. This is rarer than W&W show. Also known from just across the state line in Black Mesa State Park, Oklahoma.
p. 378 ES Valeriana arizonica. Known from Teller, Fremont, Custer, Saguache, and Alamosa counties. Blooms at high elevation very early. This is rarer that W&W show.
p. 169 ES Cyclanthera dissecta. The range given by W&W is too broad. Known only from Yuma, Las Animas, and Baca counties. Climbs into trees/shrubs in the lowest elevation canyons along the Baca - Las Animas county line. Hard to spot.
Nymphaea odorata should be in W&W but isn't. This is introduced in Rocky Ford and Fort Collins, but it is difficult to say whether these are permanent introductions or whether they are spreading or not. Considered problematic at this time.
p. 372 ES Datura stramonium. Known from Weld, Larimer, and Boulder counties, but it could show up anywhere, particularly in cultivated fields.
February 14, 2014:
p. 372 ES Nicandra physalodes. This is the cultivated "Apple of Peru," which can be bought at some plant nurseries. It is introduced in Colorado and there is one specimen from Burlington, Kit Carson County, in 1946. This area was collected in 2000 by Craig Freeman and his associates (University of Kansas) and by Dina Clark and Carolyn Crawford (COLO), but neither found it. Probably not persistent.
Physalis hederifolia var. comata is on the eastern plains in Larimer, Weld, Denver, Jefferson, Cheyenne, Huerfano, Bent, and Baca counties, but is not on the western slope. The west slope specimens are Physalis fendleri or one of the synonyms.
p. 373 ES Solanum heterodoxum. A few specimens only from the eastern plains in Weld and El Paso counties.
February 15, 2014:
p. 379 ES and p. 357 WS Violets in general. As W&W say, many species have cleistogamous (closed and self-pollinating) and chasmogmous (open and insect-pollinated) flowers, but the chasmogamous (open) flowers are sterile and produce no seed. A large number of names have been given to groups of related species that are actually polyploid complexes. Many species produce stolons. As a result of these features, morphology differs from population to population.
p. 380 ES Viola kitabeliana. Limited to Larimer and Boulder counties along the Front Range. Unknown from gardens, despite what W&W say. Blooms as early as April 8. The oldest specimen dates from 1898. Introduced in Colorado?
February 16, 2014:
p. 381 ES Viola selkirkii. W&W give Larimer (RMNP) and Douglas counties, but add to that Boulder and Fremont counties. Very rare in the foothills and montane. This is disjunct from the Black Hills of South Dakota. The "long spur" is basically thumb-shaped (if that is any help!). The sparkling hairs on the leaves can usually be seen by the naked eye, but in dark situations, use a flashlight.
p. 381 ES and p. 359 WS Viola sororia subsp. affinis. This may be a species limited to the east, and our species may be Viola nephrophylla or Viola papilionacea. Intermountain Flora and BONAP call our plants Viola nephrophylla. The species occurs up to 10,000 feet, so is montane and subalpine as well. This is found all over Colorado. The characterization of west slope counties as solely Gunnison should be increased to at least 9 other counties. East slope should be at least 12 counties.
July 6, 2014:
p. 63 ES Asclepias speciosa, “...on roadsides, fencerows, and fields everywhere”, but WS indicates "along fencerows and irrigation ditches in the valleys.” The plant definitely occurs in wet to moist areas as well as drier areas.